challenges of regional integration

0000009033 00000 n Acta de Foz de Yguazu. The creation of a common internal market and of common external economic policies, especially as regards trade, has been a priority in European integration. y�8D�������W�v 5���$l/��tA�biK�. ASEAN’s idea of integration is to see it as a step towards full-scale globalization, a process that is termed “open regionalism.”. So far so good. Regional integration refers to the process of states coming together to sign agreements where they agree to cooperate in certain areas common to them. All in all, it is clear by now that radical shifts in power structures, economic distribution or national or international policies are not easily within reach. He serves as an elected member of the city council of Helsinki and is co-chair of the social-democratic group. He serves as an elected member of the city council of Helsinki and is co-chair of the social-democratic group. Regional integration is seen as a rational response to the difficulties faced by a continent with many small national markets and landlocked countries. Apart from this continental effort at integration, there are other regional bodies, that have arisen Nevertheless, as we have seen during the past months the demise of neo-liberalism does not mean the end of capitalism nor does it automatically change the balance of power or fundamental policies. For many of us from outside Latin America, the dynamics of ALBA hold particular interest. + The fourth is the mere fact that Latin Ametican efforts towards regional integration can learn from the European experience, positively and negatively. But the nature of global integration is changing, entailing new challenges for policymaking. x��UoL[U?��6ڧPQ��;;�H'm����La0��`�H� Hence, as long as power structure are not altered, we should not expect too much good to come out from institutions working on global regulation of e.g. He carries sole responsibility for the views expressed and all shortcomings of his remarks. Tarifa por debajo del costo (deuda) In the great wars of the Bush regime – on Iraq and Afghanistan – a new obscene division of labour is emerging between the trans-Atlantic forces. 237 28 Pérdidas por la no integración eléctrica. The lesson to be learnt is that regional cooperation must, much more than has been the case in Europe, be built democratically, with explicit consent and support by the citizens. 1. Both ideas are now in a crisis. For these reasons new instruments for political regulations are called for. Finally, the last I would mention is how to undertake a process of regional integration that transcends the logic of capitalism, to borrow the words of Hugo Chavez. 0000006068 00000 n In 1991, the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) was launched with the aim of fostering regional integration among its four original members—Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. 7. 0000000016 00000 n The European Union has a series of languages that it deems to be the official languages of the EU government. In consequence, the more the economic instruments have developed the more they have dominated over other policy areas in which decision-making has been more confined to the national level. 3. Regional Cooperation and Integration Capacity 13 VIII. 0000003422 00000 n One: the fundamental principle of democracy, that all state power and all power of regional authorities belongs to the people, must always be recognized formally. It should also lead the world out of its multiple crises on the long-term. Without a commitment to peaceful cooperation and civilisational alternatives zero-sum competition for growth and unsustainable life-styles among nations and regions is likely to dominate global politics in the 21st century. On 11th July 2000, the African Union was adopted during the Lomé Summit of the OAU. of Africa’s development. The challenges of regional integration in Southern Africa @article{Chingono2009TheCO, title={The challenges of regional integration in Southern Africa}, author={Mark Chingono and Steve Nakana}, journal={African Journal of Political Science and International Relations}, year={2009}, volume={3}, pages={396-408} } 0000002383 00000 n Civil society must not only provide a check to both the state and the market, but it must be the leading force in the new economics. reserve currency must work under democratic political guidance and pursue socially and ecologically responsible monetary policies; 3. Again I hope that I do not offend the many people with other  languages as their first language if I say that the conditions for a common public space, and hence for radical regional democracy is more happy in Latin America than in some other regions. in Africa: Problems and Prospects. Integration has proceeded on the initiative and under the leadership of bureaucratic elites. 3. Because of systemic constraints in the so called leading nations we cannot wait for the Obamas and even Lulas of the world to show the way for the deep changes we need. 7. 0000004645 00000 n People’s Agenda for Alternative Regionalisms, * Presentation given at International Conference of governments and social movements “Regional Integration: an opportunity to face the crises” (21 and 22 July 2009, stuff Asunción del Paraguay). At the moment, the effort by EU-leaders to enforce the Lisbin treaty show that so far the EU is on the wrong track in this regard. endstream endobj 244 0 obj <>stream Por Roberto Colmán, generic Coordinadora Nacional por la Integración y la Soberanía Energética, help Paraguay, * Presentacion en la “Conferencia Internacional de gobiernos y movimientos sociales “Integración regional: una oportunidad frente a las crisis” (Paraguay, 21 y 22 Julio 2009). In Africa, many such challenges affect poor peopleÕs lives in areas ranging from human security and mobility to rural livelihoods, trade, infrastructure, food security, environment 3, pp. Coalition for comprehensive democracy, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam in Finland. 0000008429 00000 n The regional arena is too often considered to be only complementary to nation states and global institutional arrangements and global governance. The author claims no ownership of his ideas nor originality for his views. integration is that the great ma jority of Regional Integration Arrangements (RIAs) involve n eighboring countries (hence the term “regional”). 13. In view of recent experiences elsewhere this is likely to be more important for post-national democracy than computer-intensity. In a new kind of regionalism special zones for people’s power from below can be created, where people and nature are protected against corporations and states. regional integration in Africa Regional cooperation and integration are deemed vital to tackle development challenges that cannot be solved at the national level. Focus of Trade Policy Development Capacity Building 10 VII. In order to curb excess corporate influence strong measures must be taken at all times. La mejor interconexión eléctrica. It can also strengthen the bargaining power of the South, especially the smaller countries of the South, in global politics. Sumario Thomas Wallgren Regional cooperation in the global South and between increasingly self-reliant but co-operating Southern regional blocs can be essential for gaining economic, political and cultural autonomy from Europe and the US, serving global solidarity and environmental responsibility. We are intrigued by the comment of President Hugo Chavez during the World Social Forum in Caracas in 2006 that these practices “go beyond the logic of capitalism.”. The Challenges of Regional Integration for Development in Africa: Problems and Prospects. For this reason pro-people regional cooperation should systematically promote cultures and economies of sustainability and peace. `�*@,��w��e��m;��J( �ņM0/t��h57�7R��r+�3^\hz���Y��i��k�4)�?�7�'���O�$�I$ߒZ�V��E�a35�S�:�s:V���6ɧO��U1Di�xUx U|27.^/�OCS��7|$m=���t������\�=~�ɪ���iOWK�}�m��"e4�3�����M.? ” Is this statement true or false? In decolonising development, art iculating new visions of good life (buen vivir) and building radical democracy the movements South America are today a great source of energy and hope for people on all continents. This is not only a concern at the international level where bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements are known to undermine human rights. It has the largest internal market, the most ambitious common political instruments and the tightest juridical integration. Distribución de la energía en Itaipú. Special care must be taken at every step to keep economic policies within democratic control and to avoid spill-over from economic policies on social protection, environmental protection and other vital policy areas: Since the 1980s the main left and centre argument in favour of deepening European integration has no longer been the argument from peace. Wallgren is the head of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Drawing on analysis and inspiration coming from the 18th century German enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant and others, the idea has been to promote peace through functional integration of the national economies in the region. * Economic policies of regions should learn from the failures of the neo-liberal experiments in the EU and elsewhere: + A Latin American Central Bank issuing a common currencie that may in the long run function as a (regional?) Challenges of Regional Integration By Thomas Wallgren * Presentation given at International Conference of governments and social movements “Regional Integration: an opportunity to face the crises” (21 and 22 July 2009, stuff Asunción del Paraguay) Challenges of Regional Integration in the East Africa Community. *Walden Bello is a member of the House of Representatives of the Republic of the Philippines, president of the Freedom from Debt Coalition, and senior analyst at the Bangkok-based institute Focus on the Global South. 0000004040 00000 n My fourth suggestion is that all political reforms and initiatives now of the short and medium term should be shaped so as not to hamper but rather support a civilisational shift in which the ultimate goals and ideals of development are reconsidered. Developed and developing countries have embraced regional integration because of its perceived benefits in increasing trade and enhancing sustainable growth (Mansfield and Milner 1997; Milner and Kubota 2005).However, the proliferation of regional integration, especially in the developing world, has … For this, effective, almost excessive formal veto powers by smaller members states in the regional organisations are needed to counter the effective and lasting, greater political weight of larger members. The legitimacy and need for non-state political cooperation is obvious and  in regional cooperation as well tax-payers money and other public resources should not be exclusively spent on state and market driven integration. * Lastly, as compared with Europe, Latin America (as well as e.g. trailer In recent years the increasingly lively alliances throughout the region of indigenous and other emancipatory movements, that has given one country a president coming from the indigenous movements and another country a constitution that recognises Mother Earth is of particular interest for people on all continents who are searching for new political tools, ideas and visions. endstream endobj 238 0 obj <> endobj 239 0 obj <> endobj 240 0 obj <> endobj 241 0 obj <>/Shading<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 242 0 obj <> endobj 243 0 obj <>stream Because of the post-war technocratic logic of EU-integration the democratic crisis in Europe is also very deep-seated. The global trend in the last years and months is not that neo-liberal capitalism is replaced by socialism, a new green politics or even social liberalism but, unfortunately, by authoritarian capitalism. Peace-politics cannot imply thoughtless pacifism. But these must be complemented by stronger powers to question and interfere in the formation of this balance by national parliaments. Together the cooperating regions may make historic contributions to a post-colonial and post-imperial, pluricentric and peaceful world order. 0000047083 00000 n Bilal, S. Is the EU model of regional integration? Finally the paper identifies the prospects for integration in West Africa. 1. In reality the question of regional integration is also related to an extraordinary variety of economic, political and socio-cultural issues. 12. startxref The example of the European Union shows that even when integration is rigidly designed to create a Union of just one kind of members the end-result will be something else. When it goes away we can see again clearly that the modern state in most countries remains committed to a development model in which a mix of capitalist, growth dependent exploitative economy and consumerist, individualistic, civilisational values remains central. In India the elections were won by a centre right still pursuing growth through exports, international competitiveness, intensified exploitation of domestic natural resources and deepened integration into global markets. + The third is common interest. Nevertheless I want to welcome the quality and direction of development in many South and Latin American countries in the last few years and the efforts and the decisive contribution of ordinary people from the struggling classes to them. Regional protection and strategic cooperation should be built with a clear commitment to global solidarity. The lesson for other regions is again negative. The rules embodied in the World Trade Organization (WTO) and enforcement mechanism that comes with it helped keep protectionism low during the crisis. These experiences are at an early stage and yet they already contain lessons for other parts of the world. As a result, African governments have concluded a very large number of regional integration arrangements, several of which have * The world has seen the emergence of many special economic zones lately. The evolution of constitutionalism in the post-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe: some lessons for the post-Soviet space. The regional cooperation we are looking for must protect and build upon people-to-people solidarity and conviviality. To this end, there are four  fundamental conditions: Political, cultural and moral initiative that will inspire hope on all continents can and needs to come from many places. 5. Free movement of capital, labour and services have been seen as equally natural parts of economic integration on liberal premises. regional integration is ‘signifi cantly challenged’ as an approach to the sustainable development of economies. I suggest that a maximum size of corporations is considered as well as sealings on individual ownership and control of corporate activity. 0000042727 00000 n It is for this reason that the organizers of this conference decided to hold it in Asuncion, bringing in activists and government officials from Asia and Africa to interact with people in this region to discuss the lessons that developments here have for the rest of the world. It is extremely dangerous for democracy, ecology and social justice to make economic cooperation the heart of regional integration. 1. But it seems to me as an outside observer that the experience of more than 500 years of colonialism and imperialism serves as a source of solidarity between the peoples in Latin America. Everywhere people recognise that the ruling elites are failing and at a loss. I welcome the synthetic framework of this conference. The third is how to promote a development process that does not reproduce social inequalities at the regional and national levels in the name of capital accumulation. – All references are given for purposes of identification and transparency only. 6. H�4�W[SQ��AQ������ I recognise the enormous difficulties you are facing, including the current crisis in Honduras. They need to include very tight transparency regulation and, as I believe, innovative, radical anti-trust regulation. He is affiliated with the Brussels based organisation Corporate Europe Observatory, chair of the Finnish Refugee Council and co-chair of Alternative to the EU – Finland. When the peoples are in effective control of the balance of powers different countries will participate in different ways in regional cooperation, taking exceptions as they see fit and forming sub-units of tighter cooperation as they see fit. That is not unexpected since the region comprises an array of historically developed Simultaneously deregulation, privatisation and trade liberalisation are all on a hold or they are rolled back. This year 100 years have passed since Gandhi wrote his definitive statement, the pivotal pamphlet Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule on board a ship between Britain and South  Africa. From the perspective of radical and comprehensive democracy building from below and strengthening the disempowered is essential in all responses to the crisis. 2. It will take time to overcome it. 8. The Challenges of Regional Integration for Development. And the OAU had some successes and challenges, but the exigencies necessitated a shift in the paradigms undergirding the integration effort. A. I propose these as some of the key questions to guide our discussion of regional integration over the next two days. The consequence is that wars between the leading countries of Europe has become highly unlikely but that their integration between them may become, or has perhaps already become, counter-productive for global security. (3) Regional cooperation for global governance needs to be built democratically from below. MERCOSUR evolved from open regionalism to postliberal regionalism in the course of the first 15 years of the 21st century. Democratising the politics and economy of globalisation is important but difficult. 0 The EU is now the most advanced model of regional integration globally. %%EOF (2) Peace ambitions regionally may be counterproductive for peace globally: In the aftermath of the second world war the sound ambition of the architects of European integration was to prevent the outbreak of war between European nations. Globalization has ended in massive failure. For instance, the plan to build oil and gas pipelines from Venezuela to the furthermost areas of South America is probably dangerous and damaging not only to the environment but also to the indigenous peoples. In recent years the democratic deficit in Europe has become obvious to all. One item that fascinates us is the use of barter as a key method of trade, for instance, the exchange of Venezuelan oil for Bolivian soybeans or of Venezuelan oil for medical services rendered by Cuban volunteers. In this tradition markets and trade have often been given politically very expansive interpretations: in the EU (as in the WTO) the free movement of trade in goods has not been enough. 6. Let me close on a more positive note with some recommendations drawn from the European experience: * Regional integration needs to be built democratically. The main ideas are familiar to all by now. March 3-4, 2016. It must draw its strength from the confidence and creativity of ordinary people who are engaged in a multitude of local struggles and in a plurality of efforts towards decolonisation and civilisational renewal. A decade ago, there was much discussion about when Asia might achieve full economic integration, including … The elected parliament should not be subordinate to regional non-elected bodies, but the extent of its powers needs to be controlled from lower levels. 0000004149 00000 n Three: the peoples must always have effective control, before the fact and after the fact, of the balance of powers between regional and national authorities. 10. The mechanisms to achieve this need careful attention. 0000005714 00000 n We need a new internationalism that is not founded on state to state cooperation or market integration. 0000000856 00000 n With these remarks I wish Paraguay and all countries in Mercosur and South and Latin America at large determination and democratic energy for regional cooperation that will enhance a new internationalism and civilisational renewal world-wide. Without these impressive ideas European integration could not have been brought to its present level. 0000455612 00000 n As we have seen in South Asia, Europe, North America and elsewhere the consequence is often un upsurge of xenophobic identity-politics, increasing militarisation and securitisation and even terror by states and non-state agencies. 0000007621 00000 n E-mail: Again, I do not want to overstate the case, but it appears to me that all countries in Latin Ameica could gain in economic and cultural terns from deepened cooperation between them and also with other Southern regions, even if it has to happen at the cost of laxer links to Europe and North America. 0000002021 00000 n In actual fact different European countries have different between them quite different kinds of membership in the EU both politically and juridically. Less attention has, for understandable reasons, been paid to the contribution of Europe to global security. He is affiliated with the Brussels based organisation Corporate Europe Observatory, chair of the Finnish Refugee Council and co-chair of Alternative to the EU – Finland. I do not want to under underestimate the cultural diversity of the Americas. GLOBAL AND HISTORICAL PREMISES OF REGIONAL COOPERATION, Regional integration in the context of collapsing neo-liberalism, authoritarian capitalism and the search for cultural alternatives. It is clear that people, states and corporations in Europe and America must be pressed to responsibility and that we must pay for the mess we have caused during five hundred years through exploitation of other continents and mother earth. H��S�N�A~�}����p��=_bEKcl*[���@� �M�����դ�&�2��wF 4. * The European experience shows that regional cooperation can be effective in enhancing the power and  economic and social status of oppressed minorities and underprivileged regions. A commitment to open regionalism and deep integration would help address some of these problems and create a healthy basis for regional and global trade integration. Protecting the rule of law in post-Soviet states: the relevance of European and Eurasian integration Technological changes have made possible deep changes in the economy. Nevertheless, for historical, cultural and social reasons the global North cannot be trusted too much in the search for new civilisational visions and new socially and ecologically enriching models for progress and development. Most times, conflicts that are found in culturally diverse communities are largely unavoidable. 0000002697 00000 n He is the author of 15 books, the latest of which is The Food Wars (New York: Verso, 2009). Many of us in these countries still work to preserve and take further the Nordic tradition. The deficit is structural: decision-making in the EU is so undemocratic that, ironically, the EU, if it would be a nation, would not qualify for membership in the EU. The sense of competition fosters widely felt anxiety. The industrial growth centred development model that first emerged in Europe and North America in the 18th to 20th century needs to be seriously reconsidered. 2. La soberanía hidroeléctrica paraguaya y los tratados de Itaipú, Yacyretá y MERCOSUR. CARICOM: Challenges and Opportunities for Caribbean Economic Integration Summary In 1973, the smaller, largely English-speaking countries of the Eastern Caribbean launched the Caribbean Comm unity and Common Market (CARICOM), an integration plan intende d to coordinate a nd enhance the collective economic and social development of 15 countries. We must, however, humbly admit that the Nordic identity has weakened in the last 15 years as we have been been overwhelmed by globalisation and EU-integration. These can include for instance protection and support of micro and small enterprise as well as of local knowledge systems and forms or democracy, the launch of local and regional currencies with high social and ecological value, and so forth. 0000007449 00000 n * Regional, elected parliaments can play an important role in a new regionalism. Corpus ID: 130801062. This much should now be uncontroversial. This is a video giving information on Factors Hindering Regional Integration, under the topic Challenges and Opportunity of Regional Integration . 2. The state is back in the economy. 4. DESCARGUE LA PRESENTACION COMPLETA EN PDF, (Speech at the Conference on “Regional Integration: an Opportunity Presented by the Crisis”, look Universidad de Deportes, Asuncion, Paraguay, July 21-22, 2009.). The global record seems to be that industrial growth economies are not capable of overcoming poverty and deprivation everywhere. The EAC seems to be the most vibrant Regional Economic Community (REC) in the Southern hemisphere and is tremendously advancing in its integration process: however, crucial issues remains to … The challenges confronting us today cannot be met by either neoliberalism or the old developmentalist model. George W. Bush goes down in the books as the greatest socialiser of banks and enterprises in world history. Latin America, with its strong tradition of mass participation in politics, progressive left movements, liberation theology and its great cultural variety should be a strong region in this search. Literature review The sixth, related to the previous point, is how to move away from a statist process and institutionalize civil society participation in all key areas of economic decisionmaking. My second point today is that regional politics needs to be recognised more than before as a relevant arena of political initiative in its own right. The future belongs, as Indian social philosoper Lohia said fifty years ago, increasingly to “the bastards.” We see every day along the Southern borders of the US and the EU that efforts to keep borders closed and nations clean lead to disaster. 14. Other developments and challenges: looking beyond the Customs Union. Also internally in Europe social rights achievements have some times been undermined by the economic logic of integration. Globally the political debates seem to be moving from a discussion of separate crises to a discussion of inter-connected crises: of the finance sector, the world economy, political governance, food, water, development and climate. Challenges of regional integration Posted by admin | Jul 26, 2009 | Alternative Regionalisms , Deglobalisation , Philippines , Trade and Investment By Akbayan Representative Walden Bello* (Speech at the Conference on “Regional Integration: an Opportunity Presented by the Crisis,” Universidad de Deportes, Asuncion, Paraguay, July 21-22, 2009.) One response to this crisis has been to dump export-oriented industrialization and reemphasize the primacy of the national market in sustaining economic growth. Regional cooperation in the South can provide protection from dysfunctional and failing global institutions. The Indian Ocean is an increasingly important component of the world economy. 11. no. The Implications of ‘The Global Crisis’ in relation to the challenges and the strategic Regional Policy Alternatives facing the Southern African Development Community, COMUNICADO De los participantes de la Conferencia “Integración Regional: una oportunidad frente a la crisis”, Asunción, Paraguay, 21-22 Julio, 2009, Activities organized by the regional networks, Actividades Organizadas por las Redes Regionales, Regional Integration and alternatives Theory, Teoria de Integración Regional y Alternativas, “Conferencia Internacional de gobiernos y movimientos sociales “Integración regional: una oportunidad frente a las crisis”, Conference on “Regional Integration: an Opportunity Presented by the Crisis”. <<5E04D95EF02C1F4A979590C56857CBCC>]>> The new politics of global security that we need, must, as Gandhi and others have clearly seen long back, be linked to the construction of pro-people and environmentally sound development models. The fourth is how to promote a development process that is sustainable, that is, one that is built on ecologically benign technologies and is not based on ever-rising material consumption per capita, though of course the spreading of material wealth via income redistribution is necessary to bring people out of poverty. for intra-regional trade. More focused and gradual steps that are carefully executed at the domestic level may be the best place to start. Amortización de la deuda de Itaipú. We can still draw insight and inspiration from the Gandhian notion of and experiments with truth-force (“satyagraha”). In building regionalism for a new internationalism it is essential that we go beyond the current logic of competetive identity politics. Economic integration has intentionally been built as a device that will promote political and other integration later, behind the backs of the reluctant citizens. The second is how to ensure that building complementarity among economies does not reproduce the old, unequal division of labor between stronger and weaker economies. Box MP167 Mount Pleasant Harare, Zimbabwe.
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