Some government officials noted an allowance for the extension of contracts for North Korean laborers who had valid contracts as of September 11, 2017 and were still in Russia, while a government spokesperson stated new workers were arriving if authorities had finalized their work authorizations prior to the adoption of UNSCR 2375. Despite the lack of formal procedures, observers reported some working-level officials referred potential victims for assistance on an ad hoc basis. This article first appeared on the Atlantic Council site.. Ukraine remains one of Europe's most notorious sources of human trafficking. The moneymakers are transnational networks of traffickers and pimps that prey on the dreams of women seeking from sending and receiving countries. While the letters offered no official status to the migrants, they allowed victims to remain in the Moscow region without risk of deportation or prosecution while police investigated their trafficking case. This is not a UNHCR publication. There were widespread reports of abuse of World Cup stadium construction workers, many of whom were migrants from Central Asia, ranging from non-payment of wages to the death of 17 laborers in 2017. Authorities punished child victims of forced criminality. There were no reports of victims assisted in these shelters in 2018. Corruption and official complicity remained significant concerns, inhibiting law enforcement action during the year. The government generally did not undertake efforts to protect victims and did not publicly report assisting victims. As in previous years, the government did not draft a national strategy or assign roles and responsibilities to government agencies. In America, Russian offenders of human trafficking have been arrested and Russian human traffickers have been spreading to China as well, not to mention bringing foreign people into Russia to involve them in it. In July 2017, Russia provided in-kind support for an OSCE conference focusing on the role of public-private partnerships in the fight against human trafficking; however, the event focused on the global scope of the problem rather than the challenges in Russia. • Provide victims access to legal alternatives to deportation to countries where they face hardship or retribution. As in previous years, the government did not draft a national strategy or assign roles and responsibilities to government agencies. The article gives law enforcement statistics on the issue, law and practice developments on human trafficking and the gains that the Russian law enforcement agency has acquired in the fight against human trafficking. The Supreme Court publicly reported 18 convictions of persons under article 127.1 and three convictions under article 127.2, compared with 26 convictions under article 127.1 and one under 127.2 in 2017. During the 2018 World Cup, Russia relaxed its visa requirements, allowing visa-free entry for all Fan ID holders to enter and exit Russia without a visa through December 31, 2018. The investigation of this case remained on-going. In a new report, the U.S. State Department says Belarus, Iran, Russia, and Turkmenistan remain among the worst offenders of human trafficking and forced labor. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article is based partially or entirely on public domain works of the U.S. government, and thus may require cleanup. Although labor trafficking remains the predominant human trafficking problem within Russia, sex trafficking continued. In February 2018, government officials announced that in accordance with UN Security Council Resolutions 2375 and 2397, Russia would cease issuing new work permits to North Korean laborers, and repatriate those workers whose contracts had expired. The Government of Russia does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore Russia remained on Tier 3. The government made no efforts to develop public awareness of forced labor or sex trafficking and provided no funds to NGOs to carry out prevention and awareness campaigns. Employers sometimes bribe Russian officials to avoid enforcement of penalties for engaging illegal workers. Main Forms of Trafficking in the Russian Federation 33 1.3.1. Although labor trafficking remains the predominant human trafficking problem within Russia, sex trafficking continued. A government-funded homeless shelter accepted Russian and foreign trafficking victims, provided medical and psychiatric aid, and referred victims to international NGOs and other homeless shelters located in many of Russia's regions. Russian criminal groups threaten family members in order to coerce women into prostitution in Russia and abroad. Russian women and children are reportedly victims of sex trafficking in Russia and abroad, including in Northeast Asia, Europe, Central Asia, Africa, the United States, and the Middle East. According to official government statistics, nearly 5,000 foreigners who entered on Fan IDs remained unlawfully in Russia at the beginning of 2019, including 1,863 Nigerians. However, authorities routinely detained and deported potential forced labor victims without screening for signs of exploitation, and prosecuted victims forced into prostitution for prostitution offenses. Routes, Organisers, and Human Trafficking Victims 23 1.2. The government maintained minimal law enforcement efforts. The government maintained minimal law enforcement efforts. Teenagers are targeted for "pick-up trainings," sexual education classes in which they are pressured into performing recorded sexual acts on course organizers; the compromising videos are subsequently used to coerce the victims into further sexual exploitation.