Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. Besides, high stocking density may be associated with a surge in airborne pathogens. Minor effects on meat flavor are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. However, modern production practices produce highly … When poultry is deboned early (0 to 2 hours post-mortem), 50 to 80 per cent of the meat will be tough (Figure 2). When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, “bloody” red color with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh color 120 hours later (Table 1). No part of this site may be reproduced without permission. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. A newly discovered gene linked to bone quality could lead to better health in laying hens. Historically, meat tenderness was primarily associated with live bird quality factors such as breed, sex, or age. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. Approximately 29 per cent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 per cent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Management of poultry meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features (juiciness, tenderness, flavour) of meat. III. When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. Age of the bird at slaughter (young or mature birds) affect the flavour of the meat. Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. Chicken meat is considered as an easily available source of high-quality protein and other nutrients that are necessary for proper body functioning. When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste and feel good in their mouth. "Dr. Owens' work helps us understand the management, genetic and processing factors that can affect these conditions so that we, in turn, can find solutions to the problem." Primal and wholesale Lamb 40. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. The amount of “blood” present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. Fabricated cuts 39. The discoloration can occur in an entire muscle, or it can be limited to a specific area, such as a bruise or a broken blood vessel. When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected colour, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. However, modern production practices produce highly uniform young birds in which the major problems associated with meat texture are the result of processing errors or early deboning. Cues are pieces of information used to form quality expectations (Steenkamp, 1990). Sometimes the cause is not a single factor but a combination of factors. Approximately 29 percent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 percent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Fletcher, D. L. 1997. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. and B. Sauveur}, year={2013} } Such factors as bird sex, age, strain, processing procedures, chemical exposure, cooking temperature, irradiation, and freezing conditions were all shown to affect poultry meat colour. Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. However, this definition is incomplete because it does not consider the product's character. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Department of Poultry Science, I. When poultry is deboned early (0 to 2 hours post-mortem), 50 to 80 percent of the meat will be tough (Figure 2). Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. Many produc­ ers who sell on a yield basis are interested in how improved breed­ ing, nutrition, and management would affect their returns. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected color, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. Although electrical stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. Both taste and odour contribute to the flavour of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. Imports of chlorine-washed poultry could impact on UK quality standards. Although electri-cal stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. Stressor agent Species Effects observed on meat quality Reference Heat stress Poultry Higher incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat and decrease in the a* value of meat; These chemical changes are not unique to poultry, but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odor to account for the characteristic “poultry” flavor. Proceedings Georgia International Poultry Course, Athens, GA. Gregory, N.G. In order to meet the consumers’ growing demands for high-quality protein, the poultry industry focused on selection of fast-growing broilers, which reach a body mass of about 2.5 kg within 6-week-intensive fattening. Meat Cuts, Types of Meat and Poultry and Aging 38. Table 1 Stress factors that affect meat quality of poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep, calves and lamb. In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in color (white and dark meat). These chemical changes are not unique to poultry but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odour to account for the characteristic 'poultry' flavour. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer's expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird's development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. Meat cuts 1. Meeting these eating quality expectations and giving consumers confidence in their beef and sheepmeat purchases is the purpose of Meat Standards Australia (MSA). pp. The amount of 'blood' present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. These documents were written by Jose J. Br…. The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. Aviagen® has just released two Briefs entitled “Coccidiosis Control in Broiler Breeders with the use of Vaccines” and “Coccidiosis Control in Broilers with the use of Vaccines”. Is the meat juicy? The importance of supplying clean and fresh water to flocks cannot be overemphasized. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging and storage. The discoloration can occur in an entire muscle, or it can be limited to a specific area, such as a bruise or a broken blood vessel. Julie K. Northcutt All rights reserved. If these characteristics do not meet the consumer's expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. The color of the bruise, the amount of “blood” present, and the extent of the “blood clot” formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. This is different from energy depletion in the live bird, which causes meat to be tough. Nutrition of birds has a significant impact on poultry meat quality and safety. Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink colour when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw. 1989. Appearance is critical for both the consumers' initial selection of the product as well as for final product satisfaction. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, 'bloody' red colour with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh colour 120 hours later (Table 1). Appearance (Color) Other factors Experimental work carried out in broilers by the Free University of Berlin has demonstrated that digestion of calcium, phosphorus and other nutrients increases with the inclusion of phytogenic additives in the feed. Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. Quality of Poultry Meat: Texture and Color. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer’s expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird’s development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. The two most important quality attributes for poultry meat are appearance and texture. Optimal carcass quality Following [2] pre-slaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality can be divided into two categories: long-term effect and those who have short term effect. Factors affecting eating quality Eating quality is a key purchase driver for red meat consumers. 2.3.1 INTRINSIC QUALITY CUES High stocking density causes reduced feed consumption, lower growth rates and poor-quality carcasses. ©2000 ‐ 2021 ‐ Global Ag Media. When poultry is cooked, flavor develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. Since people only buy what they like, the consumer's perspective of quality is more appropriate. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging, and storage; however, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. However, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. stressor agents can affect meat quality in the species. Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. Unraveling the cause of a sudden drop in egg production requires a thorough investigation into the history of the flock. The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1 but the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. Catching Damage. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. Food Quality 14:33-60. In Processing of Poultry (G. C. Mead, ed.) Beef 41. Texture (Tenderness) Meat quality in chickens is an imperative trait that includes pH, meat color, drip loss, tenderness, and intramuscular, abdominal and subcutaneous fat contents. 1991. When poultry is cooked, flavour develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. In poultry, edible components include meat, skin with subcutaneous fat and giblets (gizzard, liver, and heart) and sometimes also abdominal fat in waterfowl. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. Both taste and odor contribute to the flavor of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). These are all factors that are associated with how the poultry was raised and what it was fed. These factors must be identified and accommodated at every stage, from the parent stock to the fertilized egg, through hatchery operations and broiler farms, right down to processing and delivery to the end consumer. Texture is the single most important sensory property affecting final quality assessment. For example, birds that struggle before or during slaughter cause their muscles to run out of energy quicker, and rigor mortis forms much faster than normal. High pre-slaughter stunning, high scalding temperatures, longer scalding times and machine picking can also cause poultry meat to be tough. The Handbook of Meat, Poultry and Seafood Quality commences with a discussion of basic scientific factors responsible for the quality of fresh, frozen and processed muscle foods, especially sensory attributes and flavors. 1992. Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. The sense of smell in food quality and sensory evaluation. The energy source used in the diet is also a factor for determining meat quality. The elements an inspector looks for include, is the meat tender? Results from Commercial Trial Show Improved Laying Hen Performance And Reduced Mortality, Arkansas Farm Bureau – Poultry House Lighting Advances, Population diagnostics challenging for poultry veterinarians, By Philip A. Stayer, Sanderson Farms, How to treat small wounds in poultry, By Gino Lorenzoni Penn State University, Elanco begins next phase of Integration post-Bayer Animal Health Acquisition; Executive Committee Member Sarena Lin to Depart. In the live bird, the same treatment causes meat to be tough but after death, the treatment causes tender deboned poultry meat within two hours post-mortem instead of the four to six hours required with normal aging. Long-term factors acting throughout the life of the bird, such as genetics, physiology, and disease management. References. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. However, this definition is incomplete, because it does not consider the product’s character. The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur, but this is often difficult to determine. Beef - The ancestor of the beef cattle was a type of wild ox domesticated in ancient Greece and Turkey during the stone age. The effect of deboning time on cooked meat tenderness. and J, L. Fry INFORMATION ON POULTRY MEAT YIELDS and the many factors affect­ ing these yields is becoming increasingly important. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavor when they are eating it. "Negative consumer experience with poor meat quality can impact where or what type of products of poultry they purchase if the product quality gets bad enough," Cooper said. Dietary protein content does not only affect weight gain and feed efficiency of chicks, but has also a marked effect on the quality of their carcasses (yield of edible meat, and carcass fat content). Biological, physiological, nutritional, and environmental factors during the growing period could influence the susceptibility of poultry to PSE and have a final impact on meat quality. For example, someone trying to sell a product might view its quality in terms of how well it sells and how much people are willing to pay for it. The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce “aging” time before deboning. Factors Affecting Poultry Meat Yields M. H. Swanson, C. W. Carlson. Many factors can adversely affect egg production. In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in colour (white and dark meat). The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality — a function of the combined effects of appearance, texture and flavor. J. Research Note: Shear value ranges by Instron Warner-Bratzler and single-blade Allo-Kramer devices that correspond to sensory tenderness. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. Stress Factors That Affect Meat Quality From the farm to abattoir, various stressors, such as environmental stress, nutritional stress, preslaughter handling stress, and other stress … Color of cooked or raw poultry meat is important because consumers associate it with the product’s freshness, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness. On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 percent of the poultry meat will be tender (Figure 2). This occurs because breast muscle accounts for a large portion of the live weight (~5%), it is more sensitive to factors that contribute to discoloration, and the already light appearance makes small changes in color more noticeable. Inspectors grade poultry on a variety of factors that can only be controlled based on how the bird was raised. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. Quality requirements in the modern poultry industry. The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. This means that it is not only difficult to produce a flavor defect, but it is difficult to enhance flavor during production and processing. Minor effects on meat flavour are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. Poultry meat color is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, preslaughter conditions and processing variables. II. Poultry meat quality is a complex and multivariate property, which is affected by multiple interacting factors including genetics, feeding, husbandry, pre-slaughter handling, stunning and slaughter procedures, chilling, processing and storage conditions. Conclusion Dosatron launched “smart dosing” with their newest medicator system. 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