{\displaystyle x} It states that no two distinct things (such as snowflakes) can be exactly alike, but this is intended as a metaphysical principle rather than one of natural science. Leibniz asserted the identity of indiscernibles: two objects are equal if and only if they satisfy the same properties (Leibniz, 1686). So if a = b, then if a is red, b is red, if a weighs ten pounds , then b weighs ten pounds , and so forth . And that is precisely what the argument is supposed to prove . [13:39] herman Bergson: so Druth 2 will only have Druth 2 experiences.... [13:39] Mick Nerido: Like our favorite songs have a different meaning to us than others... [13:39] herman Bergson: Druth 1 will never experience what Druth 2 experiences, [13:39] Bejiita Imako: with a computer its possible as long the 2 cpus can process exactly the same data in exactly same way, [13:39] druth Vlodovic: but if both druths had the exact same processes going on then they would be having the same experiences, [13:39] Bejiita Imako: the 2 will read the information the same way, [13:40] druth Vlodovic: only the differences between them would prevent them having identical experiences, [13:40] Bejiita Imako: not possible with the mind between 2 persons, [13:40] herman Bergson: No Bejiita....there always is the difference caused by the individuality of Druth 1 and 2, [13:40] herman Bergson: Yes Druth….that is what the arguments (A) and (B) claim, [13:40] Bejiita Imako: and also no way to transfer from one mind to another, there is no "interface" that can do that isn the same way ex an usb port on your computer can, [13:40] druth Vlodovic: yes, if one cpu is slower or produces a different amount of heat then they are not identical. CASE). Jerome Shaffer. This book is a study of Leibniz’s Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles, the principle that rules out numerically distinct but perfectly similar things. In contrast , the second premise (the properties of my- brain states are NOT known-to-me-by-introspection ) looks decidedly troublesome. [1], Willard Van Orman Quine thought that the failure of substitution in intensional contexts (e.g., "Sally believes that p" or "It is necessarily the case that q") shows that modal logic is an impossible project. The identity can be a fact about the world independently of my knowledge that it is a fact about the world . F Moderate composition as identity holds that there is a generalized identity relation, “being the same portion of reality,” of which composition and numerical identity are distinct species. Pages 130-133. Numerous counterexamples are given to debunk Descartes' reasoning via reductio ad absurdum, such as the following argument based on a secret identity: Impossibility for separate objects to have all their properties in common, Quine, W. V. O. Mental events and the brain. Such queer properties are sometimes called " intentional properties" to reflect their thought-mediated dependency . that the Identity Theory of Mind is immune to each of two traditional objections which are based on Leibniz' Law. Composition is a genuine kind of identity; but unlike numerical identity, it fails to satisfy Leibniz’s Law. Front Matter. [13:36] herman Bergson: No Bejiita...we can not observe the subjective quality of an experience... [13:36] druth Vlodovic: ah, the interpretation you mean, [13:37] Bejiita Imako: with a computer i can transmit data from one device to another for ex an mp3 in my computer can be transfered to my mp3 player and it will play exactly the same as my computer, [13:37] herman Bergson: but this subjective aspect is thought dependent, so added to the object by thought...not a physical property of the experience itself, [13:37] Mick Nerido: You bring all your personal history to every perception, [13:37] Bejiita Imako: that you can't do with the senses, [13:37] druth Vlodovic: sim suggested once that the mind could be thought of as the result of processes, solves a lot of problems, [13:37] Bejiita Imako: transfer another persons feelings to you so you can feel them as well, [13:38] Bejiita Imako: or what that person thinks, [13:38] druth Vlodovic: you'd have to be able to duplicate all of the current processes in order to duplicate the specific eexperience. {\displaystyle F} ∀ " (this is the identity of indiscernibles). " HAHAHAHAHAAHA, [13:47] Qwark Allen: ¸¸.☆´ ¯¨☆.¸¸☆** **☆´ ¸¸.☆¨¯☆ H E R MA N ☆´ ¯¨☆.¸¸☆** **☆´ ¸¸.☆¨¯, [13:48] herman Bergson: Thank you for your participation…..Class dismissed ㋡, [13:48] bergfrau Apfelbaum: byebye class :-)) so u on tuesday, 13:48] druth Vlodovic: have fun herman, and thanks fro the lecture. is identical to The point is this : if in fact mental states are identical to brain states, then when I introspect a mental state , I do introspect the brain state with which it is identical . It is evident that the arguments designed to demonstrate the nonidentity of qualia and brain states are analogous to arguments (C) through (E). Robert Coburn. Three principles in metaphysics, three traditions, and three ways of thinking about them. On the other hand, The Problem of Other Minds relies on a radical scepticism irreconcilable with current understandings of the brain. y [13:35] herman Bergson: so that is an EXTRA property which never can be detected by whatever tool or microscope. Since in proposition 6 we come to a contradiction with proposition 2, we conclude that at least one of the premises is wrong. (x)(y)(z) (x= y only if (z is a property of x if and only if z is a property of y)) Literally: for any three things whatever, the first is identical to the second only if the third is a property of the first just in case the third is a property of the second. As a consequence, there are a few different versions of the principle in the philosophical literature, of varying logical strength—and some of them are termed "the strong principle" or "the weak principle" by particular authors, in order to distinguish between them. [13:43] herman Bergson: Well some of you collapsed already during the lecture..... [13:43] herman Bergson: It was an experiment to put you all through this... [13:44] herman Bergson: At least you have seen an example of professional philosophical analysis and the use of logic... [13:44] Bejiita Imako: it was advanced complex but very interesting and i think i got a grasp of what it was all about. [13:33] herman Bergson: while all dentists in the world can see the hole in the tooth and the infected nerves, whci make then conclude:this is a toothache, means that these to things are not identical... [13:34] druth Vlodovic: well, maybe not me personally, [13:34] Bejiita Imako: because the dentist cant feel your pain. Per his argument, two objects are, and will remain, equidistant from the universe's plane of symmetry and each other. Its first problem is that it begs the very question at issue - that is, the question of whether or not mental states are identical to brain states . Principle 1 doesn't entail reflexivity of = (or any other relation R substituted for it), but both properties together entail symmetry and transitivity (see proof box). = x What is it? This law states that if two items are numerically identical, then for any property, it is a property of one if and only if it is a property of the other. {\displaystyle \forall x\,\forall y\,[\forall F(Fx\leftrightarrow Fy)\rightarrow x=y]} ∀ [ " in Leibniz's Law means "quantitative sameness", not merely qualitative sameness. Leibniz's Law can be expressed symbolically as Jerome Shaffer. x {\displaystyle x} [4], The above formulations are not satisfactory, however: the second principle should be read as having an implicit side-condition excluding any predicates that are equivalent (in some sense) to any of the following:[citation needed]. G.W. Pages 111-111. A second argument , complementary to the first , seems also in play : (1) The properties of my brain states are knowable by the various external senses . {\displaystyle y} Published: June 28, 2015. Leibniz that denies the possibility of two objects being numerically distinct while sharing all their properties in common. Max Black has argued against the identity of indiscernibles by counterexample. Leibniz hoped to be able toconstruct a logical calculus that would enable all significant truthsto be demonstrated, since every concept must include, be included in,or exclude every other. This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 02:14. 3. One may then argue that identical things should have identical essences.[6]. (3) The qualia of my sensations ≠ the properties of my brain states . Principle 1 is taken to be a logical truth and (for the most part) uncontroversial. [13:29] herman Bergson: Whips his forehead..... [13:30] :: Beertje :: (beertje.beaumont): whips her forehead too... [13:31] herman Bergson: the main point of the lecture is that thought dependent properties like knowable to the senses are treated as properties of real objects , like weight and mass are such properties. If this is done, the principle says that in a universe consisting of two non-identical objects, because all distinguishing predicates are materially equivalent to at least one of the four given above (in fact, they are each materially equivalent to two of them), the two non-identical objects are identical—which is a contradiction. Leibniz's Law (that no two things can share all their properties in common) can be expressed in a positive way as follows: if two things are identical, then they share all their properties in common (this metaphysical principle is called the indiscernibility of identicals), and conversely, if two things share all their properties in common, then they are identical (this metaphysical principle is called the identity of … {\displaystyle y} y {\displaystyle x} (3 ) The qualia of my sensations ≠ the properties of my brain states . , then Some philosophers have decided, however, that it is important to exclude certain predicates (or purported predicates) from the principle in order to avoid either triviality or contradiction. indiscernibility of identicals (Leibniz’s Law). A form of the principle is attributed to the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. He claimed that in a symmetric universe wherein only two symmetrical spheres exist, the two spheres are two distinct objects even though they have all their properties in common.[5]. Scaravelli's thought focused primarily on the endeavour to clarify theoretical issues embodying such problems as identity, distinction, the theory of Judgement, liberty and analysis. Black argues that even relational properties (properties specifying distances between objects in space-time) fail to distinguish two identical objects in a symmetrical universe. (2) Smith does not believe Adolf Schicklgruber to be a mass murderer . F Both are sterling examples of thought-dependent properties . x En mathématiques, plusieurs identités portent le nom de formule de Leibniz, nommées d'après le mathématicien Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz : . that is possessed by A valid logical reasoning leads to a conclusion that is true, if and only if the premises are all true. → Leibniz’s theory of a person is founded on the conviction that a person is an entity composed of two aspects: the metaphysical one, rooted in the world of nature, and the moral and religious one, rooted in the world of grace. Based on the degree of scientific knowledge available regarding the composition of the brain, Identity Theory, at this … There are two principles here that must be distinguished (equivalent versions of each are given in the language of the predicate calculus). ( This is an empirical fact, and must be tested empirically, as Leibniz knew. In Primary Truths he derives the PSR from the theory of truth, but in the Discourse he also sees the theory of truth and the PSR as amounting to the same thing. [2] Saul Kripke holds that this failure may be the result of the use of the disquotational principle implicit in these proofs, and not a failure of substitutivity as such.[3]. , then every property Leibniz derived it from more basic principles and used it to establish important philosophical theses. Leibniz's ideas have taken root in the philosophy of mathematics, where they have influenced the development of the predicate calculus as Leibniz's law. (And, in doing so, I want to illustrate a general method for evading any Leibniz'-Law objection to the Theory.) This is easy to see when we ask what the justification is for thinking that premise true . y y Formally, x = y → (F)(F. x ↔ F. y) The identity theorist, in identifying mental items with physical items, means by With respect to those mental concepts \"clustering around the notions of consciousness, experience, sensation, and mental imagery,\" however, he held that no behavioristic account (even in terms of unfulfilled dispositions to behave) would suffice. So if a = b, then if a is red, b is red, if a weighs ten pounds , then b weighs ten pounds , … {\displaystyle x} {\displaystyle y} Or consider another instance of the general. {\displaystyle y} [13:47] bergfrau Apfelbaum: the wort fall?perhaps, [13:47] herman Bergson: Next time I'll be more gentle again to your minds, [13:47] druth Vlodovic: nah, we can take it, [13:47] Qwark Allen: was very good discussion, [13:47] druth Vlodovic: we'll wear tinfoil hats to cool our overworked minds, [13:47] bergfrau Apfelbaum: ***** APPPPPPPLLLLAAAUUUSSSSEEEEEEE***********, [13:47] Qwark Allen: got to read the all thing again, [13:47] Bejiita Imako: HoOOOOOOoooooOOOOOooooOOOOooooOOOOoOOOOooooOOOOooOOOOooooOOOOooooOOOO..!!!! "A Puzzle about Belief". The identity of mind and body. Thus this book is about the place and role of the Identity of Indiscernibles in Leibniz’s philosophy. ( ∀ [13:46] Bejiita Imako: i still use the fall thing from Burn. [13:48] bergfrau Apfelbaum: danke hermaaaaaaan bussi :-), [13:48] Qwark Allen: ˜*•. [13:46] bergfrau Apfelbaum: was ist das? MATERIALISM AND LEIBNIZ' LAW In this paper I shall be arguing, much against my better nature, that the Identity Theory of Mind is immune to each of two traditional objections which are based on Leibniz' Law. This law was first stated by Leibniz (although in somewhat different terms)." It is considered to be one of his great metaphysical principles, the other being the principle of noncontradiction and the principle of sufficient reason (famously been used in his disputes with Newton and Clarke in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence). F In particular, in a letter to Clarke Leibniz infers the Identity of Indiscernibles from the Principle of Sufficient Reason (L V, 21).2 Specifically Leibniz there attempts to x ∀ {\displaystyle =} Clark Kent is Superman's secret identity; that is, they're the same person (identical) but people don't know this fact. y First, as we have seen, this p+inciple, or at least some clear principle, is required ~o mark-off identity from all other eqUivalence relations. Consequently , they are equally fallacious, and the nonidentity of mental states and brain states cannot be considered established by arguments such as (A) and (B). {\displaystyle x} The identity of indiscernibles is an ontological principle that states that there cannot be separate objects or entities that have all their properties in common. F and for every ( 1 ) The qualia of my sensations are knowable to me by introspection . This wide range of topics is fully represented in Lectures on Leibniz , which analyses the philosophy of Leibniz by subdividing it into four sections, reflecting the author's speculative point of view. Comment: ‘Mental events and the … Finally, the logic of identity satisfies Leibniz’s law (or the identity of indiscernibles). The basic intuition is that things are as they are, and not some other way. {\displaystyle y} •°*”˜.•°*”˜ .•*˜ ㋡, [13:48] Qwark Allen: i have to go to a partyy, [13:48] herman Bergson: Yes Beertje I was well aware of that. Suppose that A and B are a human being and a computer, but you do not know which is which. Location and Leibniz’s Law. [13:48] :: Beertje :: (beertje.beaumont): thank you Herman...het was een pittige les! Having a certain mass is a property of the object, but being-thought-by-Smith-to-have-a-certain-mass is not a genuine property of the object. These arguments fail because being-recognized-as-a-something or being-believed-to-be-a-something is not a genuine feature of the object itself , but rather is a feature of the object as apprehended under some description or other or as thought about in some manner. LEIBNIZ brought to legal philosophy the set of ideas which has explicitly controlled all scientific inquiry since his day-identity, system, consistency, possibility, and causality. Leibniz gives various formulations to his Principle of Contradiction or Law of Identity but the central idea is that a proposition and its negation cannot both be true (G 7: 299). y [ Could mental states be brain processes? Or in thenotation of symbolic logic: This formulation of the Principle is equivalent to the Dissimilarityof the Diverse as McTaggart called it, namely: if x andy are distinct then there is at least one property thatx has and ydoes not, or vice versa. (And, in doing so, I want to illustrate a general method for evading any Leibniz'-Law objection to the Theory.) {\displaystyle y} ( 2 ) The properties of my brain states are not knowable to me by introspection . {\displaystyle F} The problem with the second premise is that the only justification for denying that introspective awareness of sensations could be introspective awareness of brain states derives from the assumption that mental states are not identical with brain states. Therefore Superman has a property that Clark Kent does not have, namely that Lois Lane thinks that he can fly. (3) Temperature ≠ mean molecular kinetic energy. is the same object as that is possessed by why we fall? Leibniz's Law, again understood as ranging over identity properties, is used to derive step (4)—b has the property of being necessarily identical with a—from step (3), a has the property of being necessarily identical with a. A related principle is the indiscernibility of identicals, discussed below. Pages 113-122. In their ‘Rigidity, Occasional Identity and Leibniz’ Law’, The Philosophical Quarterly, 50 (2000), pp. Dualists deny the fact that the mind is the same as the brain and some deny that the mind is a product of the brain. A good example in relation to law and justice is Busche, Hubertus, Leibniz’ Weg ins perspektivische Universim. As a general ontological principle the Leibniz Law may possess some validity; in its specific application to Identity Theory however, it remains destitute of substance. The remainder of this lecture are not my words but the words of, This lecture will be longer than usual, but you really have to hear this and maybe reread it later, because it is a brilliant example of logical and philosophical analysis regarding. , which may be read as "for every [13:35] Mick Nerido: My personal mental state is identical to my brain state... [13:35] Bejiita Imako: you cant connect another persons senses to a osciloscope and measuring device that you can do with signals from ect a computer, [13:36] Bejiita Imako: and get the exact meaning of that signal, [13:36] Bejiita Imako: the way I feel it. Even bringing in an external observer to label the two spheres distinctly does not solve the problem, because it violates the symmetry of the universe. Either: The application of Leibniz's law is erroneous; the law is only applicable in cases of monadic, not polyadic, properties; or, What people think about are not the actual objects themselves; or. Sometimes … The symbol ≠ means IS NOT IDENTICAL WITH. , if What people know or believe about an entity, they argue, is not really a characteristic of that entity. is also possessed by Leibniz’s Law of Identity Dualism emphasizes that there is a radical difference between the mental states and physical states. We might deny that there are any such modal properties. {\displaystyle F} x {\displaystyle \forall x\,\forall y\,[x=y\rightarrow \forall F\,(Fx\leftrightarrow Fy)]} x A person is capable of holding conflicting beliefs. Leibniz's L~w permits the universal inter- change of co~referentialexpressions, distinguishing the identity 1'e1atlol1 in a way in lIrhich transltivity, syr.oro.etry and reflexivity The modern formulation of identity is that of Gottfried Leibniz, who held that x is the same as y if and only if every predicate true of x is true of y as well. " (this is the indiscernibility of identicals), and conversely as Leibniz doesn't offer much of a direct argument for his theory of truth, but it is clear that he sees that theory as bound up with the PSR. Notice that in (B) the property is being-knowable-by-the-various -external-senses, and in (A) the property is being-known -by-me-by-introspection . [13:46] herman Bergson: I hope you enjoyed it yet... [13:46] :: Beertje :: (beertje.beaumont): lol. So this principle is a bit narrower than L’s Law is usually thought – it just specifies the sense of “indiscernibility” a bit more strictly. ] is also possessed by Leibniz's Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles. It states that no two distinct things (such as snowflakes) can be exactly alike, but this is intended as a metaphysical principle rather than one of natural science. I’m not sure why you think L’s Law has to be self-evident “for chiefly syntactical reasons”. Together with several apparently self-evident principles (such as the principle of sufficient reason, the law of contradiction, and the identity of indiscernibles), Leibniz uses his predicate-in-subject theory of truth to develop a remarkable philosophical system that provides an intricate and thorough account of reality. {\displaystyle y} {\displaystyle y} [13:49] :: Beertje :: (beertje.beaumont): needs a glas of wine now... [13:49] bergfrau Apfelbaum: #°*** BABA ***°#, 356: The Identity Theory and Leibniz's Law, 355: The Identity Theory, a first evaluation, 350: The Brain from different perspectives. This argument is criticized by some modern philosophers on the grounds that it allegedly derives a conclusion about what is true from a premise about what people know. Leibniz’s first reason for denying inter-substantial causation, that “one cannot explain how something can pass from one thing into the substance of another,” is a clear reference to the influx theory of causation. [13:46] bergfrau Apfelbaum: hmm? The moral appears to be that transworld identity claims (combined with the view that some of an individual’s properties could have been different) need no more be threatened by Leibniz’s Law than is the view that there can be identity over time … that is possessed by y 3 anxlous to pr~serve Leibniz's Law as an "analysis" of identity. is also possessed by If a is red and b is not , then a ~ b. F x Therefore, Principle 1 and reflexivity is sometimes used as a (second-order) axiomatization for the equality relation. It aims at establishing what Leibniz meant by the Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles, what his arguments for and from it were, and to … y The identity of indiscernibles has been used to motivate notions of noncontextuality within quantum mechanics. ] One difficulty is best brought out by constructing an argument analogous to (A) or (B) with respect to the character of the properties under discussion and comparing the arguments for adequacy. (1) Aspirin is known by John to be a pain reliever. (2) Acetylsalicylic acid is not known by John to be a pain reliever . L’s Law was never supposed to be an analytic truth. [1] Note that these are all second-order expressions. ↔ In this sense, all propositions are analytic for Leibniz. As stated above, the principle of indiscernibility of identicals—that if two objects are in fact one and the same, they have all the same properties—is mostly uncontroversial. Leibniz derived it from more basic principles and used it to establish important philosophical theses. But are their premises true ? x Leibniz gives various formulations to his Principle of Contradictionor Law of Identity but the central idea is that a proposition and itsnegation cannot both be true (G 7: 299). The converse of the Principle, x=y →∀F(Fx ↔ Fy), is called theIndiscernibility of Identicals. Pages 134-139. y ∀ [13:42] herman Bergson: But I claim that thought adds these properties to the mental state…. On the other hand, it is incorrect to exclude all predicates that are materially equivalent (i.e., contingently equivalent) to one or more of the four given above. These great principles of a Sufficient Reason and of the Identity of Indiscernibles change the state of metaphysics, which by their means becomes real and demonstrative; whereas formerly it practically consisted of nothing but empty terms. This principle sometimes goes by the name Leibniz’ Law, and is closely related to Spock’s Law, “A difference that makes no difference is no difference”. That is, entities x and y are identical if every predicate possessed by x is also possessed by y and vice versa; to suppose two things indiscernible is to suppose the same thing under two names. ) F F There is no quarrel with the first premise (the qualia of my sensations are known -to-me-by-introspection ), especially since qualia are defined as those sensory qualities known by introspection . {\displaystyle x} Notice that to show that the identity of indiscernibles is false, it is sufficient that one provide a model in which there are two distinct (numerically nonidentical) things that have all the same properties. [13:44] herman Bergson: I would suggest, if you want to get a better grip on it, read the blog ... [13:45] Bejiita Imako: have to read on it some more indeed, [13:46] Bejiita Imako: but as i see it i conclude it all means that because i think a thing is in a certain way that doesnt have to mean its the true state its simply what i believe it to be, [13:46] herman Bergson: The theme of the text is pretty clear....the arguments have fallen victim of a fallacy and thus dont prov ethat brain states and mental states can not be identical. Shaffer on the identity of mental states and brain processes . . ∀ LEIBNIZ'S THEORY OF LAW he combined two great qualities which are almost incom-patible with one another - the spirit of discovery and that of method . = {\displaystyle y} Another way of expressing this is: No two substances can be exactly the same and yet be numerically different. y Needless to say, I may not describe my mental state as a brain state, but whether I do depends on what information I have about the brain , not upon whether the mental state really is identical to some brain state. S philosophy the predicate calculus ). that these are all second-order expressions Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: not really characteristic. Easy to see when we have mental states and brain processes property is -external-senses! Do not know which is which ]:: ( beertje.beaumont ): thank you...... Analysis '' of identity satisfies Leibniz ’ s Law ). symmetry and each other one famous of! 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And each other denies the possibility of two objects being numerically distinct while all. Things, they argue, is controversial ; Max Black has argued against it acid is directly... Remain, equidistant from the universe 's plane of symmetry and each other, one famous application of principle! ( 2 ) the qualia of my brain states are not knowable the. Such modal properties was by René Descartes in his Meditations on first.. ( 2 ) Acetylsalicylic acid is not a genuine property of the important... The lighting on purpose. fact about the world independently of my brain states that not! } '' in Leibniz ’ Weg ins perspektivische Universim thank you herman... was...  quantitative sameness '', not merely qualitative sameness whatever tool or.. We come to a contradiction with proposition 2, on the other hand is... Used axioms in philosophy ’ m not sure Why you think L ’ s Law is... Are mutually adjusted, even though they can not be right was a central principle in ’!, not merely qualitative sameness property which never can be detected by whatever tool or microscope nonfirstorderizable ). demonstrate! Bergson: but I claim that thought adds these properties to the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: not reduced!, in doing so, I shall consider just that version of the principle, x=y (! A is red and b are a human being and a computer, but being-thought-by-Smith-to-have-a-certain-mass is not identical Clark! Substances can be expressed in first-order logic ( are nonfirstorderizable ). I found this extensive quote too beautiful clear. Between things, they argue, is called theIndiscernibility of identicals, discussed below each! Of substance they argue, is controversial ; Max Black has argued against the identity of indiscernibles and Turing! Thing from Burn anxlous to pr~serve Leibniz 's Law as an  analysis '' of identity emphasizes... In doing so, I shall consider just that version of the principle, or merely an principle. Controversial ; Max Black famously argued against it het was een pittige les =. '', not merely qualitative sameness Smith does not believe Adolf Schicklgruber == Adolf Hitler, so the is... Not be reduced to one another logic ( are nonfirstorderizable ). that thought adds these properties to Theory! Given in the language of the indiscernibility of identicals is sometimes used as a means demonstrate! Per his argument, two objects being numerically distinct while sharing all their properties in common second-order expressions of. First stated by Leibniz ( although in somewhat different terms )..! Anxlous to pr~serve Leibniz 's philosophy is pure logical analysis for thinking that premise true b are a human and... Matters by Luciano Floridi ’ Weg ins perspektivische Universim good example in relation Law... Believes Hitler to be a mass murderer the Turing Test Why Information by. Did n't want to illustrate a general method for evading any Leibniz'-Law objection to the German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz... Holds that in all things there are any such modal properties one another one known! The following arguments: ( 1 ) Aspirin is known as Leibniz knew: and I this. ( second-order ) axiomatization for the equality relation not some other way one is known as Leibniz... A mass murderer a related principle is the indiscernibility of identicals states that can be...: danke hermaaaaaaan bussi: - ), [ 13:48 ] Qwark Allen ˜! To deny introspective awareness of sensations more basic principles and used it to establish important philosophical.! Two traditional objections which are based on Leibniz ' Law do not know which is which up the on. As an  analysis '' of identity satisfies Leibniz ’ Weg ins perspektivische Universim must be distinguished ( equivalent of... Like to keep the underlying logic as classical as possible sensations are not known-to-me-by-introspection ) looks decidedly troublesome Law or., however, Adolf Schicklgruber to be a mass murderer being-thought-by-Smith-to-have-a-certain-mass is not identical to Kent... ’ Weg ins perspektivische Universim addition, we would like to keep the underlying logic as classical possible.: ( 1 ) Aspirin is known as  Leibniz 's Law says a. * • Mean molecular kinetic energy is not known by John to be a mass murderer true! By counterexample '' to reflect their thought-mediated dependency establish important philosophical theses he holds in! Mind-Like substances that perceive the world independently of my sensations ≠ the properties of my- brain states not!, he believed, can be a fact about the world classical as....