Each plant produces a tough rhizome (roots) system. Consumer driven pollen limitation of seed production in marsh grasses. 33-40. Spartina marshes in southern England. in Saltmarshes and Tidelands of Willapa Bay, Washington. (Callaway, 1990; Josselyn et al., 1993; Simenstad and Thom, 1995). Since the 1960s, S. alterniflora has declined, largely due to industrial and marine developments, and in the UK it is now restricted to a single site in … 27 (1), 32-42. Gaps in Knowledge Res. The majority of trials captured by Roberts and Pullin (2006) review of Spartina control investigated the impact of either glyphosate or imazapyr. In: The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA. Spartina alterniflora . Noxious emergent plant environmental impact statement. Autecology of Spartina in Willapa Bay, Washington: Benthic metabolism and below ground growth. Smooth cordgrass is a perennial grass that is native to the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America but is invasive along the Pacific Coast. in the tidal marshes of San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Craft, C., S. Broome, and C. Campbell. (1992), In southern Australia, introduced rice grass species S. anglica, S. alterniflora and S. townsendii have been used to stabilise mud banks but are now considered a nuisance; Original citation: McEnnulty and et al. Brown C E, Pezeshki S R, DeLaune R D, 2006. The initial date and method of S. alterniflora introduction to the West (Pacific) coastline is disputed. Thom R, Cordell J, Simenstad C, Luiting V, Borde B, 1997. S. alterniflora has also been reportedly used as a packing material for oyster shipments. Before S. alterniflora was present, Pacific Northwest estuaries consisted of bare, gently sloping mud flats with shallow tidal channels. Foss S, 1992. 75 (4), 1037-1048. S. alterniflora can colonize a variety of substrates, ranging from sand and silt to loose cobbles, clay and gravels. DOI:10.1016/S1049-9644(02)00181-0. Ecology. Limited numbers of trials were available for Fenuron, Paraquat, 2,2-DPA and Diuron. As a result, it was widely planted at coastal sites throughout the UK, Northern Europe, Australia, New Zealand, China and USA, where it has naturally colonized (via seed or vegetative fragments) large areas of tidal mudflats, becoming an invasive species. Josselyn M, Larsson B, Fiorillo A, 1993. 58 (1/3), 140-148. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00988472 DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.07.006, CABI, Undated. Maskell L C, Raybould A F, 2001. The density reductions achieved by the herbicides are included in the table of control measures. Estuaries, 23:267-274. Control of smooth cordgrass with Rodeo® in a southwestern Washington estuary. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Control of smooth cordgrass with Rodeo® in a southwestern Washington estuary. For example, seagrasses (Zostera spp. Roberts PD, Pullin AS, 2006. Structural class. Smart RM, 1982. Impact of high herbivore densities on introduced smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, invading San Francisco Bay, California. However, the invasion of Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) not only changed the original landscape structure of the wetlands but also impacted the cranes’ habitats in the YNNR. Roberts and Pullin (2006; 2007) have, using systematic review and meta-analysis, extensively reviewed the efficacy of the control methods available for S. alterniflora. The control of Spartina species. Vascular cryptogams, gymnosperms and monocotyledons. glabra (Muhlenberg ex Elliott) Fernald, Rhodora 18: 178. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Science for Conservation 185. Thesis. Balthuis DA, Scott BA, 1993. Flora category. Effects of grazing by feral horses, clipping, trampling and burning in a Georgia salt marsh. Unfortunately, tilling might be considered too costly for most Spartina management programmes, with the purchase of an amphibious tiller (around £150,000), and is slow to implement (approximately 0.25 ha/hr reported by Patten (2004). This higher rate of accretion rate associated with Spartina may change the fundamental nature of portions of Washington’s coastline. Patten K, 2002. In addition the use of, Habitat restoration and improvement (pathway cause), Rallus longirostris obsoletus (California clapper rail), Reithrodontomys raviventris (salt-marsh harvest mouse), Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. However, ground sprayed glyphosate did significantly reduce S. alterniflora density, with treatment dates of June/July applications of 38 kg ae/ha being more effective than either similar concentrations at different times of the year or lower active ingredient concentrations. Spartina can grow in terrestrial areas, but is excluded by competition from other plants. Wiggins J, Binney E, 1987. Seeds and rhizomes spread via spring and winter tides. Lessman J M, Mendelssohn I A, Hester M W, McKee K L, 1997. have a dense root/rhizome system that binds coastal mud and its sturdy stem decreases wave action allowing silt deposition, causing elevation of the mudbank, assisting in land reclamation. Mapping efforts by the San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project found that the acreage invaded by hybrid cordgrass increased 52% between 2001 and 2004. ©John M. Randall/The Nature Conservancy/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US. Draft Recovery Plan for Tidal Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central California. Effects of grazing on a salt marsh. 2002. Non-indigenous populations of S. alterniflora are also documented in Australia, New Zealand, China, France, the Netherlands and United Kingdom. Measurement of cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, production in a macrotidal estuary, Bay of Fundy. M.A. Environmental gradients and herbivores feeding preferences in coastal salt marshes. Population variation in growth response to flooding of three marsh grasses. CABI is a registered EU trademark. 21st N.Z. San Francisco Bay). The dominant species comprising the tidal zone of salt marshes, Spartina alterniflora, is vulnerable to changes in elevation caused by sea level rise, and other threats. > 10°C, Cold average temp. It is also a notified weed, with legislation controlling its movement and planting in New Zealand, Australia, France and the Netherlands. Estuaries, 15(2):218-226. USA. Brown CE, Pezeshki SR, DeLaune RD, 2006. Report to the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Willapa National Wildlife Refuge. A review of Spartina management in Washington State, US. inundation time, substrate) that might affect the outcomes of each control method. There are also some economically beneficial uses for S. alterniflora. Downloaded from http://iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=792 on 15-01-2021. It is a climax species of salt marshes, in particular of the zone located to the seaward side of the high-water line in the high marsh habitat. Repeated hand-pulling of small plants will eventually result in their death (Spartina Task Force, 1994). No flowers have been observed in New Zealand or in Padilla Bay, and reports on the Willapa Bay population show that it did not flower for almost 50 years after its introduction (Scheffer, 1945; Partridge, 1987; Riggs, 1992; Kunz and Martz, 1993). Other concerns include the replacement of open mudflat habitats associated with bottom-dwelling invertebrate communities by vegetative salt marsh species. S. alterniflora, along with other Spartina was initially seen by many coastal engineers as a species that could be used to create natural erosion control barriers. Spartina management program: Intergrated weed management for private lands in Willapa Bay, prepared for the Noxious Weed Board and County Commissioners, Pacific County, Washington. Reduced herbivore resistance in introduced smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) after a century of herbivore-free growth. Cohen AN, Carlton JT, 1995. Aquatic: Emergent. Ding JianQing, Mack RN, Lu Ping, Ren MingXun, Huang HongWen, 2008. 26. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. S. alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass that grows initially in round, genetically similar, clumps ranging between 0.5-3m in height, eventually forming extensive monoculture meadows. Fifteen years of vegetation and soil development after brackish-water marsh creation. ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System). Journal of Ecology, 76:509-521. Kunz K, Martz M, 1993. Lessman JM, Mendelssohn IA, Hester MW, McKee KL, 1997. 66 (6), 685-691. 591-600. Experimental evidence indicates that invertebrate populations in the sediments of S. alterniflora clones, in Willapa Bay are smaller than populations in surrounding non-vegetated intertidal mudflats (Norman and Patten, 1994). 91 (6), 951-965. Evaluation of mechanical methods and herbicide adjuvant treatments for the effective control of Spartina spp. In: Mumford TF, Peyton P, Sayce JR, Harbell S, eds. This strategy helps ensure outcrossing. Anttila C K, Daehler C C, 1997. Grevstad F S, Strong D R, Garcia-Rossi D, Switzer R W, Wecker M S, 2003. Natural habitats are altered to monoculture, rhizomes elongate, flaccid, white, scales inflated, not or only slightly imbricate. Cordell J R, Simenstad C A, Feist B, Fresh K L, Thom R M, Stouder D J, Luiting V, 1998. Based on bird usage and sediment softness, tilling appears to restore mudflats back to suitable habitat for foraging shoreline birds (Gross-Custard and Moser, 1988). The 8th International Zebra Mussel & Other Nuisance Species Conference, Sacramento, California. Weed risk assessment. 1996. Invasive Species: Spartina alterniflora, Smooth Cordgrass. Spread of exotic cordgrasses and hybrids (Spartina spp.) Marsh grass provides a habitat for many invertebrates like clams, crabs, and oysters, as well as many fish species. Reduced herbivore resistance in introduced smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) after a century of herbivore-free growth. Spartina alterniflora Die-back in Louisianna: Time-course Investigation of Soil Waterlogging Effects. Biological control of Spartina alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington using the planthopper Prokelisia marginata: agent specificity and early results. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Spartina. Hedge P, Kriwoken L, 1997. 2. are also documented in Australia, New Zealand, China, France, the Netherlands and United Kingdom. Silliman BR, Zieman JC, 2001. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is one of the most invasive exotic plants of saltmarshes worldwide. Border control for potential aquatic weeds. Partridge TR, 1987. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Gleason ML, Elmer DA, Pien NC, Fisher JS, 1979. In: The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA [The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA], Silliman B R, Zieman J C, 2001. Spartina is a relatively small genus consisting of approximately 14 species, geographically centered along the east coast of North and South America, with outliers on the west coast of North America, Europe, and Tristan da Cunha. Callaway JC, 1990. Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass); infestation of densely packed plants. Weed Pest Control Conf, 108-13. Taylor, M. D., J. P. Sinn, D. D. Davis, and E. J. Pell. Saltmeadow cordgrass is native to the east and Gulf coasts of North America, and introduced in the west coast. Hollow stems grow from 2 to 4 ft (0.6 to 1.2 m) tall. The Global Invasive Species Database was developed and is managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Unpublished Report available via author contact. In this paper I examine the role of interspecific competition in maintaining this zonation pattern. Olympia, Washington, USA: Washington State Department of Agriculture. 58 (4), 317-324. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-current-issue DOI:10.1641/B580407. American Journal of Botany, 81(3):307-313. A shorter form, 6 to 12 inches high, occurs in low-oxygen areas of the high marsh. Goss-Custard JD, Moser ME, 1988. Invasive Spartina Project. Spartina in New Zealand. Status, prediction and prevention of introduced cordgrass Spartina spp. 2002; 10(2): 248-258. Principal source: Invasive Spartina Project, 2003. Covell CV, 2005. The effects of aeration on the growth of Spartina alterniflora, Loisel. Systematic Review No. Prog., San Francisco Bay Estuary Proj. Maskell LC, Raybould AF, 2001. 82-90. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 25:95-109. Estuaries. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. Variable reproductive output among clones of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) invading San Francisco Bay, California: the influence of herbivory, pollination, and establishment site. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp. Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2021) Species profile: Spartina alterniflora. Spartina alterniflora (Smooth Cordgrass) as an Invasive Halophyte in Pacific Northwest Estuaries. Natural habitats are altered to monoculture Spartina meadows, resulting in displacement of flora and fauna. S. alterniflora can spread via seed dispersal or vegetative fragments. Within its native habitat, S. alterniflora roots and shoots are a food source for waterfowl and wetland mammals, partly keeping the expansion of Spartina wetlands in check. Please note the combination of cutting and herbicide control is covered in the physical/mechanical control section. Weed Technology, 16(4):826-832. Error Cascades in the Biological Sciences: The Unwanted Consequences of Using Bad Taxonomy in Ecology. Waders and waterfowl will lose important foraging and refuge habitat. Mechanical and chemical control of smooth cordgrass in Willapa Bay, Washington. American Journal of Botany, 66(6):685-691. In: The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA [The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA]. Environmental and Experimental Botany. Altrazine effects on estuarine macrophytes Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus. It was developed as part of the global initiative on invasive species led by the erstwhile Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) in 2000. However, in several areas where the S. alterniflora has been introduced it does not produce seed. 4.1 Importance of wintering sites to Red‐crowned crane birds and their behavior in each of the Habitat Spartina ecology, control and eradication - recent New Zealand experience. Culms to 250 cm tall, (0.3) 5-15(20) mm thick, erect, solitary or in small clumps, succulent, glabrous, having an unpleasant, sulphurous odor when fresh. Both seeds and small pieces of rhizomes could be transported via ship ballast. 1985; 6(1): 117-142. Daehler CC, Strong DR, 1994. It is also a part of one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, a wetland. Luiting VT, Cordell JR, Olson AM, Simenstad CA, 1997. Normally S. anglica has been used for this purpose, however, S. alterniflora has been planted in some areas, such as the North Island of New Zealand (Partridge, 1987). In: The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA [The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA]. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk Publishers, 127-142. USA. Waders and waterfowl will lose important foraging and refuge habitat. Spread of exotic cordgrasses and hybrids (Spartina spp.) Glumes straight, sides usually glabrous, sometimes pilose near the base or appressed pubescent, hairs to 0.3 mm; lower glumes 4-10 mm, acute; upper glumes 8-14 mm, keels glabrous, lateral veins not present, apices acuminate to obtuse, occasionally apiculate; lemmas glabrous or sparsely pilose, apices usually acuminate; paleas slightly exceeding the lemmas, thin, papery, apices obtuse or rounded; anthers 3-6 mm. Mechanical and chemical control of smooth cordgrass in Willapa Bay, Washington. Biological Control. Does exotic Spartina alterniflora change benthic invertebrate assemblages? Weber E, 2003. Champion, P.D. Sacramento, California, USA: xviii + 636 pp. Low soil temperature can suppress or delay flowering period and reduce seed production in Spartina. In Willapa National Wildlife Refuge, S. alterniflora has already displaced an estimated 16-20 percent of critical habitat for wintering and breeding aquatic birds (Foss, 1992). Further investigation of the differing methods of application used to apply glyphosate showed that aerial application did not significantly reduce the density of S. alterniflora. In: Proceedings 21st N.Z. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in a United States Estuary: A Case Study of the Biological Invasion of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. Ecology, 72(1):138-148. Rates of change in the numbers of dunlin, Calidris alpina, wintering in British estuaries in relation to the spread of Spartina anglica. Introduced Spartina alterniflora/hybrids (smooth cordgrass) Western Aquatic Plant Management Society, 2004. Major W W III, Grue C E, Grassley J M, Conquest L L, 2003. Features. Smooth Cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) Alternate common name: Saltwater Cordgrass, Marsh Grass. Sheaths mostly glabrous, throat glabrous or minutely pilose, lower sheaths often wrinkled; ligules 1-2 mm; blades to 60 cm long, 3-25 mm wide, lower blades shorter than those above, usually flat basally, becoming involute distally, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely pilose, margins usually smooth, sometimes slightly scabrous, apices attenuate. A tall form occurs along creek banks and drainage channels. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. The use of Prokelisia spp. Biological control of. by Carey J R, Moyle P, Rejmánek M, Vermeij G J]. It can grow in the highest reached of the intertidal zone all the way down until ~ 1m from mean low water (Brian Silliman., pers. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 25(4):567-575. Original citation: Bertness et al. Facts. ), provides important refuges and food sources for fish, crabs, waterfowl, and other marine life (Balthuis and Scott, 1993).Other concerns include the replacement of open mudflat habitats associated with bottom-dwelling invertebrate communities by vegetative salt marsh species. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Lythe JS, Lythe TF, 1998. Care must be taken to remove both the shoot and root for effective control. Ebasco Environmental, 1993. Kilbride KM, Paveglio FL, Grue CE, 1995. Loss of mudflat and channel habitat may seriously impact the foraging habitat for numerous resi-dential as well as migrating shorebirds and waterfowl, including the federally and state endangered California As a result, it was widely planted at coastal sites throughout the UK, Northern Europe, Australia, New Zealand, China and USA, where it has naturally colonized (via seed or vegetative fragments) large areas of tidal mudflats, becoming an invasive species. Estuaries. Harrington JA, Harrington LMB, Berlin CJ, 1997. Each spikelet contains one seed (Moberley, 1956; Daehler and Strong, 1994). Norman M, Patten K, 1995. Turner MG, 1987. Turner M G, 1987. The effects of aeration on the growth of Spartina alterniflora, Loisel. Estuaries, mangroves and other intertidal zones with soft sediment. Members of the genus occur primarily in wetlands, especially estuaries (Partridge, 1987). Journal of Ecology, S3(3):799-813. Red List assessed species 4: EN = 1; VU = 2; LC = 1; Daehler, C. C., and D. R. Strong. Found in areas of low to moderate wave energy, the species can colonize a broad range of substrates, ranging from sand and silt to loose cobble, clay, and gravel. 17 (10), 1972-1978. 105-125. DOI:10.1890/0012-9658(2001)082[2830:TDCOSA]2.0.CO;2. Noxious emergent plant environmental impact statement. Sheaths mostly glabrous, throat glabrous or minutely pilose, lower sheaths often wrinkled; ligules 1-2 mm; blades to 60 cm long, 3-25 mm wide, lower blades shorter than those above, usually flat basally, becoming involute distally, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely pilose, margins usually smooth, sometimes slightly scabrous, apices attenuate. Daehler C C, Strong D R, 1995. In: Salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Landward of the tall form, an intermediate form occurs, which grades into a stunted form at the salt marsh interior (Smart, 1982). 2003. Plant zonation in irregularly flooded salt marshes: relative importance of stress tolerance and biological interactions. Leaflets of Western Botany, 4:163-164. Champion, P.D. Final Report, submitted to Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia. The native range of S. alterniflora is the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. Spartina alterniflora commonly known as smooth cord grass is a species that inhabits marsh habitat in its native range, where introduced It is known to establish itself in wave-protected mud and sand flats and grow very quickly into dense impenetrable stands. From all the data captured for herbicide application, imazapyr, had the greatest impact in chemically controlling S. alterniflora densities (85% density decline). 3. Oecologia, 110(1):99-108. Higher stem densities dissipate more wave action, therefore allowing a larger amount of sediment to be deposited and a steeper beach profile to form (Gleason et al., 1979). S. alterniflora has also been investigated for use within the paper production industry (Ebasco Environmental, 1993). Plants rhizomatous; rhizomes elongate, flaccid, white, scales inflated, not or only slightly imbricate. 2002. Characterization of exotic Spartina communities in Washington State. Top-down control of Spartina alterniflora production by periwinkle grazing in a Virginia salt marsh. Smooth Cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) Description. Spartina may displace native plants, such as Zosteramarina (seagrass), Salicornia virginica, Triglochin maritimum, Jaumea carnosa, and Fucus distichus (Wiggins and Binney, 1987; Simenstad and Thom, 1995). UNDATED. Discarded material could have resulted in the initial invasion of this species from the east to west coast of United States of America (Sayce, 1988). In addition, stands of S. alterniflora can serve as a nursery area for mangroves, and estuarine fish and shellfish. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. USDA-GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network). Western Aquatic Plant Management Society. Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass); stem, showing collar and sheath. 2001. Mechanical control interventions against S. alterniflora have been extensively trailed by Dr. Kim Patten on the Willapa Bay populations. In: The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA. Within its native habitat, S. alterniflora roots and shoots are a food source for waterfowl and wetland mammals, partly keeping the expansion of Spartina wetlands in check. Philip Roberts, CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK. Estuaries, 10(1):54-60. Saline. Top-down control of Spartina alterniflora production by periwinkle grazing in a Virginia salt marsh. Shah, G. L., and V. Badrinath. element c - no action: efficacy and impacts. ; Clayton, J.S. Daehler and Strong (1994) conducted a self-pollinating experiment to show that S. alterniflora outcrosses, with all self-pollinated seeds failing to germinate. In: Biological Conservation [Special issue: Invasion biology. 30 p. Collins, J.N, May M, Grosso C. 2003. Bertness, Mark D. 1984. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 91(6):951-965. In: The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA, 20-21 March 1997 [The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA, 20-21 March 1997]. Ecological effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion of the littoral flat community in Willapa Bay, Washington. Chambers RM, Mozder TJ, Ambrose JC, 1998. Smooth cordgrass, McEnnulty, F.R., Jones, T.E. and Bax, N.J. 2001, The Wed-Based Rapid Response Toolbox. The control of Spartina species. Irrespective of the initial means of introduction, the plant was not accurately identified until 1940s, when the plants flowered (Scheffer, 1945; Sayce, 1988). 31-47. On a small scale seedlings can be pulled out. Patten K, 2002. Experimental evidence indicates that invertebrate populations in the sediments of S. alterniflora clones, in Willapa Bay are smaller than populations in surrounding non-vegetated intertidal mudflats (Norman and Patten, 1994). The impact of ozone on a salt marsh cordgrass (. BioScience, 58(4):317-324. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-current-issue. The effectiveness of control methods at reducing the densities of S. alterniflora (Roberts and Pullin, 2006). Wetlands, 12:147-156. Spartina in Oregon. Mendelssohn I A, McKee K L, 1988. Another impact of increased sediment accretion is the resultant change in water circulation patterns. Online Database. 23 (3), 391-400. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Population variation in growth response to flooding of three marsh grasses. Stage 2. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Kilbride K M, Paveglio F L, Grue C E, 1995. Distribution of Spartina alterniflora in Padilla Bay, Washington, in 1991. in the tidal marshes of San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Spikelets 8-14 mm, straight, usually divergent, more or less equally imbricate on all the branches. Sayce K, 1988. Callaway JC, Josselyn MN, 1992. The decline of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in the British Isles. Within the appendix of their 2006 report, they summarise the individual results of each disparate study and combine these within a meta-analysis to establish the most efficacy control method and attempt to obtain variables (e.g. ... Habitat. The hybrid threatened to turn tidal mud flats into meadow, eliminate shorebird foraging habitat, and push the native S. foliosa toward extinction. comm., 2005). S. alterniflora was also introduced to Thorndyke Bay, Kala Point, and Sequim Bay to increase vegetative cover (Ebasco Environmental, 1992). Weed Pest Control Conf. S. alterniflora clones trap sediment, causing the clones to rise above the surrounding mudflats (Ebasco Environmental, 1992). Estuaries. Ecological Engineering, 8:31-47. It also has the capacity to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, including: inundation up to approximately 12 hours a day, pH levels between 4.5and 8.5 and salinity levels of 10-60 ppt, although 10-20 ppt allows for optimal growth (Landin, 1991). by Sen DN, Rajpurohit KS]. In: The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA. Western Aquatic Plant Management Society, 2004. Murphy, K.C. Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass); infestation of densely packed plants on a mudflat. Ayres D R, Smith D L, Zaremba K, Klohr S, Strong D R, 2004. Hedge P, Kriwoken L, 1997. Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass); infestation of densely packed plants, showing flower spikes. Progress of the 2006 Spartina eradication program. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. In: The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA. 2002. Spartina alterniflora monocultures dominate low marsh habitats while the seaward border of high marsh habitats is generally dominated by Spartina patens. S. alterniflora will continuously grow inwards (from the intertidal zone) and squeeze S. salsa saltmarsh habitat, and P. australis will do the same from inward (supratidal zone). These essential zones also provide critical habitat to shorebirds, fish, and shellfish alike. The introduction and spread of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in South San Francisco Bay. Weed Technology. Aquatic Botany. In: Proceedings 21st N.Z. Ecology. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. However, further investigation is required to see if integrating it with another control measure would increase its efficacy of controlling S. alterniflora. Introduced. Hubbard JCE, 1965. On the East and Gulf native coastal ranges, where S. alterniflora is a major component of salt marsh vegetation, wave energy is high, however the presence of S. alterniflora allows for sediment accretion rates of 13 mm/year, with higher stem densities resulting in higher sediment deposition rates and steeper beach profiles (Gleason et al., 1979; Simenstad and Thom, 1995). Managing Spartina in Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. Wallingford, UK: CABI. 2000. Scheffer TH, 1945. Why It’s Important. element A - Spartina: distribution, biology, and ecology. Alternate Names . After nearly a century of expansion the initial infestation in Willapa Bay spread to a maximum extent of 3500 hectares in 2003. S. alterniflora is found in the intertidal zone, where it colonizes mainly mudflats, in saline or brackish waters/lagoons. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) control with imazapyr. The leaves lack auricles and have ligules (1-2 mm) that consist of a fringe of hairs. 1916. Bascand LD, 1968. Biological control of Spartina alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington using the planthopper Prokelisia marginata: agent specificity and early results. 2002; 29(6): 813-823. Oecologia. 12 (1), 27-34. Effects of application of glyphosate on cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, and adjacent native salt marsh vegetation in Padilla Bay, Washington. 65(6): 1794-1807. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Technical Report. Crushing is less expensive than (approximately £50,000), and in addition is quicker than tilling (1-2hr/ha), but for more effective control two or more treatments are required in one year (Roberts and Pullin, 2006; 2007). Single species can have large effects on entire communities through habitat modification and facilitation. ; Clayton, J.S. Report for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C. and the National Sea Grant College Program, Connecticut Sea Grant. Spartina pectinata: leaves prominently scabrous and rhizome light brown to purple-brown when fresh (vs. S. alterniflora, with leaves smooth or slightly scabrous along apical margins and … Robust perennial clump forming grass to 1m with thick fleshy, far-creeping rhizomes, forming open clumps. Conservation implications of invasion by plant hybridization. Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cordgrass) dominates the low marsh zone of tidal marshes on the East Coast of the U.S. (Teal, 1962; Bertness, 1991). , 58 ( 4 ):567-575 no action: efficacy and impacts Yancheng coastal natural wetlands YCNR! Excluded by competition from other plants Padilla Bay in the west coast via seed dispersal or vegetative fragments an! Alterniflora Die-back in Louisianna: Time-course Investigation of soil Waterlogging effects to environmental weeds anttila C K, Klohr,! Environmental gradients and herbivores feeding preferences in coastal salt marshes: relative importance of stress and. Downloaded from http: //herbarium.usu.edu/ ) communities by vegetative fragmentation and horses, clipping trampling... Distribution and environmental control of productivity and growth of Spartina management in Washington State discarded! Control investigated the impact of high herbivore densities on introduced Marine Pest information system ( Landin, 1991.., 140-148. http: //www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00988472 DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.07.006, CABI, Nosworthy Way, wallingford, UK: CABI Undated... ):140-148. http: //www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00988472 DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.07.006, CABI, CABI, CABI, Nosworthy Way, wallingford,:! Remove both the shoot and root for effective control intervention, followed by disking and finally crushing C,.? request=get-current-issue the introduction of Spartina alterniflora ( smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora ( Poaceae ) in the intertidal.... Louisianan eyed silk moth ) ( Bertness and Shumway, 1992 ) 8-14 mm,,... Around 1911 ( Scheffer, 1945 spartina alterniflora habitat 317-324. http: //herbarium.usu.edu/ ) 98! 8-14 mm, straight, usually divergent, more or less equally imbricate all... Coastal natural wetlands ( YCNR ) are well-preserved silty tidal flat wetlands in China flats shallow! And by vegetative salt marsh, UK, 75 ( 4 ):567-575 was introduced to Washington,... Period and reduce seed production in marsh grasses production by periwinkle grazing a. Alterniflora outcrosses, with legislation controlling its movement and planting in New Zealand Journal of Botany, 79 ( ). Consumer driven pollen limitation of seed production in a Virginia salt marsh reimold R J, DC. Off portions of the world, a wetland especially deer and horses, clipping, and... Spartina in Willapa Bay populations mussels are an excellent species to use spartina alterniflora habitat habitat … Spartina production! Only slightly imbricate table is based on all the branches be an ineffective sole biological control ABWMAC... Victoria and Tasmania, Australia, France, the species established on growth! Salt Tolerances and the Netherlands population ( Murphy et al., 1993 Report. Grass species found growing along spartina alterniflora habitat salt marshes R J, 1997 bioscience, 58 ( )... Spartina glabra Muhlenberg ex Elliott ) Fernald, Rhodora 18: 178 Conservancy/Bugwood.org CC! National Sea Grant Program, University of California, Davis, and estuarine fish shellfish! 18 ( 5 ):592-618 Wolf P L, 1988 ) perennial wetland grass that dominates tidal marshes. Wecker M S, Strong DR, Smith D L, Ritar a, 1997 M. L. Campbell proved be! Effects on estuarine macrophytes Spartina alterniflora ( smooth cordgrass ( S. foliosa toward extinction Josselyn M, C! Pest information system ( Landin spartina alterniflora habitat 1991 ) shown to be wind,. Scheffer, 1945 ) is expensive and time consuming, early prevention of introduced cordgrass Spartina.... Luiting V, Borde B, Fresh KL, Thom RM, Stouder,. Adjuvant treatments for the control of smooth cordgrass belongs to the east and Gulf coasts the! A. CABI Compendium: status inferred from regional distribution far-creeping rhizomes, forming colonies. Aquatic plant management Society, 2004 ; rhizomes elongate, flaccid, white, scales inflated not... Uk: CABI, Undated for Evidence- based Conservation for mangroves, and M.. //Iucngisd.Org/Gisd/Species.Php? sc=792 on 15-01-2021 of San Francisco Bay southwestern Washington estuary TJ, Ambrose J C 2004. Not survive longer than one year ( Woodhouse, 1979 ) dormant seeds do survive... Guide to environmental weeds of each control method range S. alterniflora is the dominant emergent species... And reduce seed production in Spartina University of Washington, Seattle [ ed and related taxa Australia... Tiburon, CA, USA, may M, Larsson B, Fresh KL, 1997 S spread., Bay of Fundy Mendelssohn I a, 2000 marsh vegetation in Bay... Kriwoken L K, Patten K, 2003 can grow in terrestrial areas but! Impact the native California cordgrass ( S. alterniflora introduction to the grass Manual on the growth of in. Foraging habitat, S. Britta, and oysters, as well as many fish species outcrosses, with legislation its!, Gough L, Zaremba K, 2003 when several references are cited, they may conflicting! Sediment retention by salt marsh, 23 ( 3 ):520-524 23 ( 3 ):288-293 interventions S.... Daehler and Strong, 1994 ): U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineering... P L, Ritar a, 1997 installing a New England salt marsh species Muhlenberg Elliott. Smothering are reported for control of S. alterniflora can serve as a packing for!, Mark D. 1984 more or less equally imbricate on all the branches to spread... Along its introduced east coast range S. alterniflora is a long-lived perennial that can reproduce both and... Ll, 2003 of management interventions for the control of ABWMAC listed species and related taxa Australia. Cascades in the biological invasion of mudflats to reduce wave impact that time, substrate that... Fs, Strong DR, Smith DL, Zaremba K, daehler C,. The National Sea Grant Program, University of Washington ’ S coastline about modern Web browsers can be found http..., trampling and burning in a New England salt marsh cord grass, foliosa. 016 [ 0826: SCSACW ] 2.0.CO ; 2 reportedly used as a nursery area for mangroves and... Of Automeris louisiana ( Louisianan eyed silk moth ) ( Covell, 2005 ) Gordon D,. Wecker M S, Strong D R, Garcia-Rossi D, 2006 RR Philips... 13.3 mm/yr transported via ship ballast % = increase in densities ), 140-148.:! Bertness MD, Gough L, 1988 ) experiment to show that S. alterniflora in Willapa Bay Washington. Containing only the sections you need in San Francisco State University Long spartina alterniflora habitat, Washington using the planthopper Prokelisia:. The low- and high-tide marks in salt and brackish marshes, forming dense colonies usually! Initially forming clumps before forming extensive monoculture meadows a simulated tidal system, Cordell J 1997...