6. Granadina goats tend to have shorter gestation than those of the, PARVATHI K. BASRUR, HARPREET S. KOCHHAR, in, Current Therapy in Large Animal Theriogenology (Second Edition). If you want to switch over to goat milk and use your own goats, then this might be the breed for you. Moreover, no polyvalent vaccines are currently available in Europe (Hendrickx, 2009). Check out our Christmas fudge, Christmas gifts , goat cheese additions and soaps. Saanen. For instance, Toggenburg goat milk is 2.7% protein while Nubian goat milk is 3.7% protein by volume. Protein levels in goat milk vary by breed as well as season, type of feed, and stage of lactation. in 1950, there were almost 20,000 Toggenburg goats in Switzerland that in 2006, left 3000 only. It occurs in South and eastern Africa, Nigeria, and Egypt (since 1972); Israel and Palestine (since 1943); Cyprus and Syria (since 1943); Turkey and Iran (since 1944); Pakistan, India, Japan, Indonesia, Australia, and Central and North America (since 1948); and South America (since 1962). But also good for meat production. The breed is polled. Possible persistence (overwintering) of BTV in other hosts (rodents, reptiles) is suspected (MacLachlan, 2011), as well as that in infected T-cells of certain mammalian hosts (Takamatsu et al., 2003). The Toggenburg section of the B.G.S. Peter J. Chenoweth, ... Cornelia Flöercke, in Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals (Second Edition), 2014. Herd Book was opened in 1905, the first breed to have its own section. The "rut" is the beginning of the courting for a doe, a very strong foul musky odor and fighting between bucks begins. Milk production of recorded goats was 650 kg in 270 days. A Toggenburg Goats eyes are rectangular rather than round. Disadvantages of Toggenburg goat. In general, sheep in endemic areas are naturally resistant to BT, but outbreaks of BT occur when susceptible sheep are introduced to these endemic areas. The matured male Toggenburg Goats attain a height that ranges from 34 to 38 inches, with a weight ranging from 150 to 200 pounds. Although they are classed as dairy goats, but they are also good for raising as pets mainly for their friendly and calm nature and good personality. The Toggenburg (Figure 4) is another of the main Swiss dairy breeds from the Toggenburg valley. We have great deals on pet quality or … In one case, BTV was said to persist in cattle for nearly 5 years, although vector-proof accommodation was unfortunately not provided (Luedke, Jones, & Walton, 1977). They are widely known as good winter milkers. The back legs of the Toggenburg Goat are white in color extending from hocks to hooves and their front legs are also white extending from knees descending with a dark stripe under the knee. Some of the attenuated BTV vaccines caused abnormalities (including CAHS) in the fetuses of ewes vaccinated during the 5th and 6th week of pregnancy (Parsonson, Della-Porta, & Snowdon, 1981c). BT has also been observed in American deer (Odocoileus virginianus, O. hemionus), elk (Alces alces), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana), mouflon (Ovis musimon), bison, and camelids. "Scientific name for Toggenburg Goat is Capra aegagrus hircus". Genetic drift and genetic shift (reassortments) have been described in BTV, causing its steady evolution (MacLachlan & Guthrie, 2010). Looking for young buck kids to raise for meat or pets? History: The ovine disease was first described in South Africa after European merino sheep were introduced in the region in the late eighteenth century (MacLachlan & Guthrie, 2010). The principal hormone produced by the gonads in caprine intersexes is testosterone, which accounts for the masculine behavior. Prior to 1998, occasionally short-lived incursions of BTV occurred in southern Europe: Spain and Portugal (in 1956–1960, serotype BT-10 killed some 180,000 sheep: Manso-Ribeiro et al., 1957) and Greece (1979). This can be quite desirable and take a bland cheese to another level. There were importations of goats from Switzerland in 1922, 1965 and semen in 1993. The breed is abundantly found throughout its habitat, and is presently spreading in other countries as well. Depending upon nutritional opportunity and the risk of predation, feral goats may exhibit either following or lying-out behavior at birth (O’Brien, 1984). This is a Toggenburg goat. Minimum protein content to qualify for the Toggenburg goat breed registration is 2.90%. Toggenburg goat breed has a nickname i.e. These goats are slightly smaller than the other Alpine goat breeds. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. First by eating the raw materials and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as "cud" (ruminating: chewing the cud.) Peter Windsor, in Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics (Tenth Edition), 2019. The hair coat may be short or long, as valued for rough climates. Toggenburg Goats of Arizona is dedicated to providing natural and healthy artisan goat milk products to our local community and visitors. The Toggenburg, nicknamed Togg, is a breed of milk goat, named after the region in Switzerland where the breed originated, the Toggenburg valley in the Canton of St. Gallen. However, the incidence of hermaphroditism appears to be higher than that of freemartinism in this species; freemartinism in goats is much less common than in cattle (Jackson 2004). The Toggenburg Goat breeds are extremely adapted to cooler conditions. They are one goat that is really easy to milk as they will stand still to be milked. In a comparative study of intrinsic maternal factors of Saanen, German Fawn and Damascus goats, Saanen had an increased likelihood of requiring birth assistance and Damascus goats exhibited the longest duration of licking and grooming (Ocak and Onder, 2011). Prevention: vaccines against BT currently available on market are either attenuated or inactivated (Bhanuprakash, Indrani, Hosamani, Balamurugan, & Singh, 2009; Savini, MacLachlan, Sanchez-Vizcaino, & Zientara, 2008). Vocal cues were exchanged in the period immediately following birth and the doe engaged in a considerable amount of licking and grooming of kids during the first 2 hours. Toggenburg goats produce milk that has 3.3% of fat, which is relatively low. BTV genome consists of 10 linear segments; variation in VP2 and VP5 proteins determine the serotype (Schwartz-Cornil et al., 2008; Wilson & Mellor, 2009). These are important facts so do your research on this if you are raising Toggenburg Goats, especially young Toggenburg Goats (kids). that survive winter (MacLachlan, 2011). Now Toggenburg goats present in British countries are heavier than others and have good milk production. It provides a robust protection for at least 1 year after one injection and it is relatively cheap, but some BTV vaccine attenuated virus(es) can be additionally spread by vectors with a potential to reversion of virulence and even reassortment with the genes of wild-type virus (Samal, Livingston, McConnell, & Ramig, 1987; Stott, Oberst, Channell, & Osburn, 1987). Some dribble urine or stretch out with a concave back and urinate forward between the legs.21 Whenever bilateral cryptorchidism is encountered, intersex should be suspected. Toggenburg Goat Description /Conformation:-This Toggenburg breed is medium in size, sturdy, vigorous, and alert in appearance. This breed is particularly hardy, making it ideal to breed with meat producing goat breeds. Bluetongue is a notifiable disease (OIE, 2012). In 1902, the disease was mentioned by Hutcheon as “malarial catarrhal fever of sheep,” afterward named as “bluetongue” by Spreull in 1905 who first reported comprehensive clinical profile of the disease. The Toggenburgs Goats breed is perhaps the hardiest of all goat varieties that is crossed with meat goats, such as the Boer and Kalahari red goats. On 3 July 1958 the SA Milch Goat Breeders’ Society was founded, and on 2 August 1958 a Certificate of Incorporation was issued to the Society. An average 24 hour yield of 4.54 Kg. Set alert. Although smaller in stature than its British counterpart it is usually a strong goat with sound conformation. Cattle may thus serve as a source of BTV for several weeks while displaying little or no clinical signs of disease. Failure to exhibit estrus, development of male behavior during the breeding season, a shortened vagina on speculum examination, and smaller-than-normal teats may be the first signs of the intersex condition.22 The breeding of phenotypically polled bucks should be avoided. 5.9) (Jessup, Osburn, & Heuschele, 1984), sporadically cattle and South-American camelids, and even carnivores. A "doe" or "nanny" is what a female Toggenburg Goat is called. In an investigation of vocal recognition, does were able to discriminate their own kids’ vocal cues from other non-related kids (Terrazas et al., 2003). Hermaphrodites that have been described in goats are mainly male pseudohermaphrodites, having testes and the accessory reproductive organs of the female; they are genetic females. Fat and protein content of Toggenburg milk is high. The Toggenburg Goat is a domesticated breed that developed for the first time in Switzerland. Goat Milk; Saanen; View all Topics. We had a Toggenburg doe, Heart, and her milk tasted as good as any cow's milk. We have a great selection of Alpine, Nubian, Saanen and Toggenburg dairy goats for sale. Toggenburg Goat breeds appears with a medium-sized body, with a dished or straight face and it is moderate in milk production. Toggenburg milk typically has a fat content of 3.2-3.7 percent. Toggenburg. On 3 July 1958 the SA Milch Goat Breeders’ Society was founded, and on 2 August 1958 a Certificate of Incorporation was issued to the Society. For the information of potential Toggenburg goat breeders, the breed standard requires a minimum fat content of 3.56%, a minimum milk yield of 740kg per lactation. Toggenburg goats milk productivity. The Toggenburg (Figure 4) is another of the main Swiss dairy breeds from the Toggenburg valley. The goats are generally smaller than other Swiss breeds, but can be just as productive. Capra aegagrus was derived from the Wild Goat (C. aegagrus). Quick Information Also Known As Toggenburger, Toggenburger Ziege, Chèvre du Toggenbourg, Capra del Toggenburgo … This goat breed is the oldest recognized dairy variety of goats. Copyright © 2017 Toggenburg Goat All rights reservedWebsite concept and design by National Pacific Web Design 530 672-9250. then eating the cud. Vertebrate hosts: sheep of certain breeds, non-African wild ungulates (Fig. Several western European goat breeds (Saanen, Alpine, Toggenburg) exhibit a well-described genetic relationship between the polled (hornless) phenotype and intersex (or hermaphrodite) characteristics. Haenlein, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2016. of milk per lactation. We have top quality dairy goat bucks and does to choose from. Intersex animals may start to smell and may act aggressively toward other goats and people during the breeding season. The Toggenburg Goat attains its name from the name of the place of its origin. PARVATHI K. BASRUR, HARPREET S. KOCHHAR, in Current Therapy in Large Animal Theriogenology (Second Edition), 2007. Geographic distribution: BTV has been identified on all continents except Antarctis, in the latitude range between 35°S and 40°N with a potential expansion up to 50°N. The Toggenburg Goat breeds have a general Swiss Marked outline with different dilutions. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. They can produce close to 900L of milk per year, during the lactation period that can last anywhere around 250-270 days a year, depending on the climate and the environment, as well as nutrition. With careful breeding we produce high quality, productive dairy goats. At night they have excellent vision and can due just as much at night. It is among the most productive breeds of dairy goat and is distributed world-wide, in … Pugh, in Sheep and Goat Medicine (Second Edition), 2012, Caprine intersex animals are referred to as male pseudohermaphrodites because a majority of them have testes. Centric fusion translocations have been found in Saanen and Toggenburg goats, although the effect on fertility is difficult to assess because of the confounding factor of the intersex gene associated with polledness in this species, nevertheless, it does seem that heterozygosity for a centric fusion translocation is associated with reduced fertility in the Saanen breed. Animal disease: “bluetongue or ovine catarrhal fever”—a noncontagious disease of domestic and certain wild ruminants; the infection can often be subclinical or inapparent, but sometimes can lead to severe disease with high mortality in susceptible animals (sheep). Toggenburg goats are one of the world’s leading dairy goat breeds. The Toggenburg goat has always been characterized by its adaptability and hardiness. lineatopennis) can play a role as secondary or mechanical vectors, as well as sheep ked Melophagus ovinus. Abnormal sexual differentiation during embryological and fetal development, resulting in intersexes, is relatively common in the goat, especially in breeds such as the Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. The Toggenburg is a Swiss dairy goat from Toggenburg Valley of Switzerland at Obertoggenburg. The Toggenburg goats are highly milk productive and they are very suitable for commercial milk production purpose.. We will start Owner Sample DHIR milk testing this year. Music by : www.bensound.com www.youtube.com This makes it particularly suited to the changes in climate between the mountains and the lowlands. The total membership of the Society currently stands at 28 active breeders. A male castrated goat is called a "wether". Intersex is more prevalent among polled dairy goats (Saanen, Reproductive and Maternal Behavior of Livestock, Peter J. Chenoweth, ... Cornelia Flöercke, in, Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals (Second Edition), ). Male Toggenburg Goats at the beginning of mating season go through a period called a "rut". Same faces, new name! Importantly, Culicoides biting midges can be passively dispersed over long distances (> 100 km) by prevailing winds leading to rapid spread of the viruses they carry (Ducheyne et al., 2011; Garcia-Lastra et al., 2012; Hendrickx, 2009; Mellor, 1993; Pedgley, 1983; Sellers, 1980; Sellers, Pedgley, & Tucker, 1978). at 3.69% butterfat and 2.72% protein was obtained by considering data from all British Toggenburgs entered in B.G.S. Goat’s milk is used for babies allergic to cow’s milk, as well as for patients with digestive disorders. Saanen. 12/05/2020 Just a reminder, Toggenburg Goats will be at the Holiday Msrket at Red Mountsin Farmers Market at 9410 E. MC Kellips Road ,tomorrow, Decembet 5th from 8 to noon. The goat is one of the 12 animals in the Chinese zodiac. Togg. Intersex goats can be used as teaser animals because they do not produce sperm.7 Gonadectomy generally is required if the animal is to be used as a pet. In 2006, African serotype BTV-8 was detected initially in the Netherlands, before spreading to Germany, Belgium, north-eastern France, and Luxemburg causing substantial losses among ruminants. Their prevalence is extremely low among horned feral goats, whereas they occur at a high rates in lines selected for twinning and/or lack of horns.2 In the Saanen and Toggenburg breeds raised in the United States, the prevalence of intersexes during the early part of this century was as high as 11% and 6%, respectively, whereas more recent surveys on European dairy goats cross bred to native breeds from different parts of India indicate the prevalence to be under 2%. We offer top quality kids for sale from our Toggenburg dairy goat herd. The stock we sell is guaranteed to be fertile if given proper care by the buyer. 1 Storey’s Guide to Raising Dairy Goats, J. Belanger, Storey Books, 2001, p 10. People would come and we'd give them Heart's milk in their coffee or tea without telling them and they were never any the wiser! Its called "bleating" how goats communicate with each other. Gestation length in goats is variable and depends on the breed of the dam, parity and season, with shortest length in summer and longest gestations in winter (Hoque et al., 2002). In this study, kids generally first suckled within the first hour after birth, with the mother–young pair remaining together at the birth site for an average of 18 hours during which they were in constant contact. Viremia in certain ruminants may be high- and long term (2 weeks, but sometimes up to 50 days in cattle). The Toggenburg goat is known to be very good in milk production, a pure and traditional dairy breen goat. The main marketing issue for prospective dairy goat producers is the number of commercial processors to whom raw milk can be shipped. The goat has good length and depth, without legginess. It … If so, this needs to be considered in future selection programs. Purpose of Toggenburg Breed:- These goats are reared and raised for dairy (milk). Most are generally female-like in appearance at birth, but as they grow and mature, there will be evidence of an enlarged clitoris, perhaps testes in the inguinal region, and the development of male secondary sex characteristics, including the typical male odour (see Chapter 9). Goats are also free from tuberculosis. The Toggenburg or Toggenburger is a Swiss breed of dairy goat. A goat herder notice how much energy his goats had, after eating as we know now as the coffee bush and that's how coffee was first discovered. Toggenburg, breed of dairy goat originating in the Toggenburg valley of Switzerland.The oldest breed of dairy goat in the United States, the Toggenburg has proved widely adaptable. It is against the law in most states, including Pennsylvania, to sell raw milk unless it is inspected by state milk inspectors. Even though they occur in all goat breeds, their prevalence varies, depending upon the breed, prolificacy of the line, and the selection practice adopted by breeders.2 Among the domesticated goats, male pseudohermaphrodites are more frequently seen in dairy breeds than in wool breeds. ADGA statistics from 2006 show … in cattle than in sheep. Zdenek Hubálek, ... Norbert Nowotny, in Advances in Virus Research, 2014. The Toggenburg Goat have white-colored ears, with a dark mark in the middle. Granadina goats tend to have shorter gestation than those of the Toggenburg and Alpine breeds. Special Considerations. The intersex gene is an autosomal recessive that is linked to the dominant gene for polledness, thus homozygous females for the polling gene are also homozygous for the intersex gene and are intersexes. As a dairy goat, they have to consume more than 5% of their body weight in food every day. Oberhasli goats produce less creamy milk with 3.6% fat, and the milk can’t be produced all year round. Haenlein, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2016. The face is straight with two unique white stripes from the muzzle to the eyes and poll, called ‘badger’ face, which is a simple recessive genetic trait. BTV was first passaged by Dixon and Spreull from ovine spleen in South Africa, 1900, later by A. Theiler, who also demonstrated its filterability in 1906 (Du Toit, 1944; Karabatsos, 1985; Theiler & Downs, 1973). The attenuated vaccine has long been used to control BT in sheep in South Africa, Corsica, Balearic Islands, and Italy. Male Toggenburg Goats reach puberty at the age between 4 to 8 months and the female is between 7 to 10 months. "Kidding" is the act of a goat giving birth.Goats can even climb trees because they have great balance and some goat species can jump over 5 feet high. C. Devendra, G.F.W. And thou shalt have goats' milk enough for thy food, for the food of thy household, and for the maintenance for thy ... we are a small herd of award winning ADGA Nubian, Lamancha and Toggenburg dairy goats. Toggenburg goat farming is popular and very common, because it is the oldest known dairy goat breed. Both sexes, female and male goats can have beards. Toggenburg goats are useful in reducing unemployment in rural areas because of their wonderful milk production skills. Toggenburg milk typically has a fat content of 3.2-3.7%. The blue tongue (cyanosis) after which the disease was named is seen only occasionally, in more serious clinical cases. The polled intersex condition is rare or not reported in some breeds (e.g., Nubian and Angora).22 Cytogenetic evaluations of caprine intersexes clearly show that most polled intersexes are karyotypically female (XX), and the breeding histories of the parents indicate that intersex animals are homozygous for the polled trait.15, Affected animals are genetically female but may exhibit male, female, or mixed external characteristics.22 Generally, they are female-appearing at birth, but as they reach sexual maturity, they become larger than normal females, with masculine-appearing heads and erect hair on the neck.10 An enlarged clitoris in a doe-like animal or a decreased anogenital distance in a more masculine-appearing animal is typical of intersex22 (Figure 8-6). An alternative use for goat milk is as an on-farm substitute for milk replacer in lamb, veal, and pig diets. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005965006223, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702072338000094, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095274000158, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128001721000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978070207233800029X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781437723533100083, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123945860000056, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780721693231500830, Abnormalities of Development and Pregnancy, Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics (Tenth Edition), Biology and Diseases of Ruminants (Sheep, Goats, and Cattle), Wendy J. Underwood DVM, MS, DACVIM, ... Adam Schoell DVM, DACLAM, in, Laboratory Animal Medicine (Third Edition). The Toggenburg is a Swiss breed of dairy goat. The hair is short or medium in length, soft, fine, and lying flat. Slightly smaller than the other Alpine breeds, the does weight at least 120lb/55kg. Its strong ankles, a distinctive feature of the breed, allow it to graze on steep slopes, and its thick coat, varying from pale to reddish brown, protects it from the rain and cold temperatures. Body weight for males is 70 kg and females is 55 kg, and height is 75 cm for males and 70 cm for females. The Toggenburg, nicknamed Togg, is a breed of milk goat, named after the region in Switzerland where the breed originated, the Toggenburg valley in the Canton of St. Gallen. They are mainly used for milk production. The erect ears are less than of medium length. Peers Davies, in Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics (Tenth Edition), 2019. However, since 1998, at least eight distinct BTV strains of six serotypes (1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 16) have invaded Europe, including Greece, Bulgaria, European Turkey, Balkan countries, France, and many northern countries (MacLachlan & Guthrie, 2010; Mellor, Carpenter, Harrup, Baylis, & Mertens, 2008). Photo by Jean. A "buck or "billy" is what they call a male Toggenburg Goat. Toggenburg goats are used for their milk since they are productive dairy goats. The name of the disease originates from the Afrikaans name for the disease—“blaauwtong” (Spreull, 1905). Misty A. Edmondson, ... D.G. Their milk has a minimum fact content of 3.56% and a minimum protein content of 2.9%. The Toggenburg Goat are habitually extremely inquisitive and curious animals. The breed is one of the most popular breeds in the UK and is used in some commercial goat farms where cheese is a main product. It is characterized by a comparatively small, solid-coloured body of any shade of brown, white ears with a dark central spot, two white stripes down the face, and predominantly white legs. Following recovery, animals may also exhibit a number of long-lasting secondary effects, such as reductions in milk yield and weight gain, severe wool break, and temporary infertility (Wilson & Mellor, 2009). The Toggenburg Goat appear with different white-colored markings. TOT in biting midges has not been demonstrated but the virus could persist in long-lived adult Culicoides spp. The average lifespan of the Togenburg Goats breed ranges from 8 years to 12 years. The female breeds appear with a height between 30 to 32 inches, and they weigh 125 pounds maximum. The testes generally are intraabdominal (in the normal location of the ovaries), but they may be partially or totally descended.7 Partially descended testes may be mistaken for udders, especially when they begin to enlarge during puberty.21 Hypospadias (opening of the urethral orifice on the ventral aspect of the penis), formation of sperm granulomas, and hypoplasia of testicles all should be considered part of the intersex complex.15,23. Toggenburg Goats are one among the varieties of goat that hail from the Toggenburg valley in Switzerland. Predation; Disease Attack; Feeding Problems; Sanitary Management; Risk of Robbery Also do the research on de-worming your young Toggenburg Goats (kids) and do the research on the proper doses. Toggenburg Goats have a four chamber stomach, goats are "Ruminant" is any hoofed even-toed mammal, that digests its food in two stages. Intersexes can also occur as a result of freemartinism, in which placental fusion occurs in twins of dissimilar sex; examples of goat freemartinism have been reported. To use goat milk as an alternative feed source requires that th… In pregnant animals, abortion may occur. Toggenburg goats are appropriate for each open grazing and stall feeding. The tail of the Toggenburg Goat breed is short, with a white-colored triangle on its both sides. Baby Toggenburg Goats are weaned off their moms after around 6 months. Goats are also free from tuberculosis. The disease is noncontagious, but seminal shedding of BTV was demonstrated in viremic rams and bulls (Bowen, Howard, Entwistle, & Pickett, 1983). Mother Toggenburg Goat will call their young so they stay close at all times, a baby goat is called a "kid". It is much more prevalent in polled individuals, in which ‘polledness’ is a simple dominant character with full penetrance but is also associated with a recessive hermaphrodite effect with incomplete penetrance. The Toggenburg goat … By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The Togenburg Goats are usually a gracious, calm and tender breed, and are also ideal pets, even though they are classified as dairy goats. Intersexes are relatively common in domestic goats. Oberhasli. Several western European goat breeds (Saanen, Alpine, Arboviruses Pathogenic for Domestic and Wild Animals, ; 26 distinct BTV serotypes with varying virulence are currently recognized (differentiated by VNT), including “, Schwartz-Cornil et al., 2008; Wilson & Mellor, 2009, Du Toit, 1944; Karabatsos, 1985; Theiler & Downs, 1973, Carpenter et al., 2012; Kampen & Werner, 2010; MacLachlan, 2011, Ducheyne et al., 2011; Garcia-Lastra et al., 2012; Hendrickx, 2009; Mellor, 1993; Pedgley, 1983; Sellers, 1980; Sellers, Pedgley, & Tucker, 1978, Bowen, Howard, Entwistle, & Pickett, 1983, Bhanuprakash, Indrani, Hosamani, Balamurugan, & Singh, 2009; Savini, MacLachlan, Sanchez-Vizcaino, & Zientara, 2008, Samal, Livingston, McConnell, & Ramig, 1987; Stott, Oberst, Channell, & Osburn, 1987, MacLachlan & Guthrie, 2010; Mellor, Carpenter, Harrup, Baylis, & Mertens, 2008, Carpenter, Wilson, & Mellor, 2012; MacLachlan, 2010; Mellor et al., 2008; Wilson & Mellor, 2009, Infertility and Abortion in Sheep and Goats, Abnormal sexual differentiation during embryological and fetal development, resulting in intersexes, is relatively common in the goat, especially in breeds such as the Alpine, Saanen, and.