invade England. In 1629, Denmark withdrew from the war leaving Wallenstein and his army in charge. Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars of the 16th century) 2. On 1 July, Knox preached from the pulpit of St Giles', the most influential in the capital.[8]. European Wars of Religion DRAFT. After obstinate resistance, the town was taken by the besiegers on June 24, 1535, and then Leiden and some of his more prominent followers were executed in the marketplace. The political interests of the aristocracy and the vacillating policy of balance pursued by Henry II’s widow, Catherine de Médicis, prolonged these conflicts. However the rebel campaign ended in failure as William ran out of money to pay his army and his allies were destroyed by Alba. Flag of the Catholic League. However, in September 1589, Henry inflicted a severe defeat on the Duke at the Battle of Arques. It stated that: Religious tensions remained strong throughout the second half of the 16th century. Souls with mortal sins. The young Fitzgerald failed to gain much local support however, and October saw a 1,600 strong army of English and Welshmen arrive in Ireland, along with four modern siege-guns. DRAFT. Following the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, the Emperor demanded that all religious innovations not authorised by the Diet be abandoned by 15 April 1531. As the former Member of Parliament Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Prince Rupert's fleet in Kinsale, Oliver Cromwell could land at Dublin on 15 August 1649 with an army to quell the Royalist alliance in Ireland. The Swedish armies alone destroyed 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany, one-third of all German towns. After a period of peace, war took up again in 1622, to be finally ended on January 30, 1648, with the Treaty of Münster between Spain and the independent Netherlands. This, however, was no easy task. The 1560s. In response, the Lutheran princes who had set up Protestant churches in their own realms met in the town of Schmalkalden in December 1530. Episodes of widespread famine and disease devastated the population of the German states and, to a lesser extent, the Low Countries and Italy, while bankrupting many of the powers involved. Increasingly threatened by the armies of the English Parliament after Charles I's arrest in 1648, the Confederates signed a treaty of alliance with the English Royalists. Spaans (1999) argues that iconoclasm was actually organized by local elites for political reasons [2] In general, local authorities did not step in to rein in the vandalism. The preaching of Martin Luther and his many followers raised tensions across Europe. William of Orange was put at the head of the revolt, entering the Netherlands with an army 20,000 strong, and with forces of French Huguenots in support. War of Roses. This so-called "Spanish Fury" strengthened the resolve of the rebels in the seventeen provinces. Coligny and his troops retreated to the south-west and regrouped with Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, and in spring of 1570 they pillaged Toulouse, cut a path through the south of France and went up the Rhone valley up to La Charité-sur-Loire. In the territory of Brandenburg, the losses had amounted to half, while in some areas an estimated two thirds of the population died. Engraved by Franss Hogenberg, a Dutch engraver and artist of the 16th century. In History. In keeping with Salic Law, he named Henri as his heir. The following year, the attacks extended to over 20 cities and towns, and would, in turn, incite Catholic urban groups to massacres and riots in Sens, Cahors, Carcassonne, Tours and other cities.[3]. An organised influx of Calvinist preachers from Geneva and elsewhere during the 1550s, succeeded in setting up hundreds of underground Calvinist congregations in France. Further hostilities—the Seventh War (1579–1580)—ended in the stalemate of the Treaty of Fleix. Save. The national and religious aspects of the foreign policy of Philip II of Spain were not always in accord. It's To die for . Peace of Augsburg A treaty between Charles V and the forces of Lutheran princes signed in 1555, which officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and allowed princes in the Holy Roman Empire to choose which religion would reign in their principality Switzerland was to be divided into a patchwork of Protestant and Catholic cantons, with the Protestants tending to dominate the larger cities, and the Catholics the more rural areas. Following aggressive Calvinist preaching in and around the rich merchant cities of the southern Netherlands, organized anti-catholic religious protests grew in violence and frequency. However this was generally regarded as unsatisfactory by both Catholics and Protestants. AP European History: Unit 2.2 HistorySage.com Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 I. Hapsburg-Valois Wars (c. 1519-1559) A. Uploaded by. Although sometimes unconnected, all of these wars were strongly influenced by the religious change of the period, and the conflict and rivalry that it produced. This is not to say that the combatants can be neatly categorised by religion or were divided by their religion alone, as this was often not the case. This provoked a further outbreak of hostilities (the Second War) which ended in another unsatisfactory truce, the Peace of Longjumeau (March 1568). Souls purified before death. The Battle of Dreux and the battle of Orléans, were the first major engagements of the conflict. In 1576, the King signed the Edict of Beaulieu, granting minor concessions to the Calvinists, but a brief Sixth Civil War took place in 1577. As hostilities broke out, the Edict was revoked. There are seven questions for easy conversion to an IB grading scale. In Europe, the Christian church had been a near universal church for about 1000 years, but this was changed by the reformation of the early 1500s. The Peace of Augsburg began to unravel as some bishops converting to Protestantism refused to give up their bishoprics. The European religious wars were brutal, with the combined death toll ranging from 5.5 million to 18.5 million. In the latter stages of the war, Catholic France, fearful of an increase in Habsburg power, also intervened on the Protestant side. aharriman_59962. Its partisans massacred a Huguenot congregation at Vassy (1562), causing an uprising in the provinces. The revolt of the Holy League against the prospect of a Protestant king in the person of Henry of Navarre released new forces among the Catholic lower classes, which the aristocratic leadership was unable to control. Edit. In its battle to maintain Catholic control of the Low Countries, Spain was severely hampered by the fact that it was also fighting a war against the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean. But to understand the full story, we'll need to start at the beginning. They spread their revolutionary religious and political doctrines into the countryside of Bohemia, Southern Germany, and Switzerland. European Wars of Religion will be a journey into the excitement, division, chaos, and horror of religious reform and civil violence during the Wars of Religion in early modern Europe. Uploaded by. European Wars of Religion - Olivia Fowler Timeline created by oliviafowler23. But the interpretation of the European wars of religion still remains largely defined by national boundaries, tied to specific processes of state building as well as nation building. In 1585, Antwerp—the largest city in the Low Countries at the time—fell into his hands, which caused over half its population to flee to the north (see also Siege of Antwerp). Of the 30,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived. Save. While the wars of religion often began as conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, there were political, economic, civil, and national reasons behind the wars as well. In Uncategorized. Read European Wars Of Religion books like The Children of the New Forest and Auldearn 1645 with a free trial Starting as a revolt against feudal oppression, the peasants' uprising became a war against all constituted authorities, and an attempt to establish by force an ideal Christian commonwealth,[citation needed] with absolute equality and the community of goods. The Catholics were commanded by the Duke d'Anjou (later King Henry III) and assisted by troops from Spain, the Papal States and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.[5]. Fought after the Protestant Reformation began in 1517, the wars disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe. The Imperial power retreated to Austria and the Habsburg lands. Its members eventually intended the League to replace the Holy Roman Empire itself, and each state was to provide 10,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry for mutual defence. 68% average accuracy. The conflict was to the advantage of the Catholics, and the Emperor was able to impose the Augsburg Interim, a compromise allowing slightly modified worship, and supposed to remain in force until the conclusion of a General Council of the Church. "Catholicism and Resistance to the Reformation in the Northern Netherlands". Simultaneously Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for their aid and assistance. The first major changes to doctrine and practice took place under Vicar-General Thomas Cromwell, and the newly appointed Protestant-leaning Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer. Lots of people are posting their COVID-19 relevant images – and one day someone should make an attempt to inventory them. Catholicism was forcibly suppressed. The Battle of Ivry, fought on March 14, 1590, was another victory for the king, and Henry's forces went on to lay siege to Paris, but the siege was broken by Spanish support. The German Peasants' War of 1524/1525 was a popular revolt inspired by the teachings of the radical reformers. After numerous minor incidents and provocations from both sides, a Catholic priest was executed in the Thurgau in May 1528, and the Protestant pastor J. Keyser was burned at the stake in Schwyz in 1529. But the interpretation of the European wars of religion still remains largely defined by national boundaries, tied to specific processes of … Some areas of Europe had more than 30 percent of their population wiped out. In History. The European Wars of Religion: An Interdisciplinary Reassessment of Sources, Interpretations, and Myths [Palaver, Wolfgang, Regensburger, Harriet Rudolph & Dietmar] on Amazon.com. These conflicts became known as the Dutch Revolt or the Eighty Years' War. The peace institutionalised the Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist religious divide in Germany, with populations either converting, or moving to areas controlled by rulers of their own faith. religious) since both France and the Holy Roman. In the case of the southern provinces, he speaks of a relatively small, orderly group moving along the country. The victors confiscated almost all Irish Catholic-owned land in the wake of the conquest and distributed it to the Parliament's creditors, to the Parliamentary soldiers who served in Ireland, and to English people who had settled there before the war. The major impact of the Thirty Years' War, in which mercenary armies were extensively used, was the devastation of entire regions scavenged bare by the foraging armies. On the other was a minority of Catholics that wanted to remain loyal to the Landholder (Dutch: landvoogd) and the Spanish-backed government below him. Here a group of prominent citizens, including Bernhard Rothmann, the Lutheran pastor, Jan Matthys, and Jan Bockelson (John of Leiden) had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town on January 5, 1534. DEATH. His policy of religious uniformity in the Netherlands alienated the most wealthy and prosperous part of his dominions. 9th grade . On 12 May 1588, a popular uprising raised barricades on the streets of Paris, and Henry III fled the city. Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty that ended the religious struggle between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. Under pressure from the Duke of Guise, Henri III reluctantly issued an edict suppressing Protestantism and annulling Henri of Navarre's right to the throne. The last straw was the installation of a Catholic reeve at Baden, and Zürich declared war on 8 June, occupied the Thurgau and the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and marched to Kappel at the border to Zug. When additional French troops arrived in Leith, Edinburgh's seaport, the Protestants responded by retaking Edinburgh. After the Peasants' War (1524/25), a second and more determined attempt to establish a theocracy was made at Münster, in Westphalia (1532–1535). In 1562, seven years after the Peace of Augsburg had established a truce in Germany on the basis of territorialism, France became the centre of religious wars which endured, with brief intermissions, for 36 years. However tax-raising authority for these wars was getting harder and harder to raise from parliament. This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.The original content was at Category:European wars of religion.The list of authors can be seen in the page history.As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License. Church property was seized and Catholic worship was forbidden in most lands which adopted the Lutheran Reformation. This led to the Fourth and Fifth Civil wars in 1572 and 1573-1576. By 1646 Charles had been forced to surrender himself to the Scots and the parliamentary forces were in control of England. After the siege of Drogheda, the massacre of nearly 3,500 people[citation needed]—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests—became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries. The Spanish withdrew from France under the terms of the Peace of Vervins. Crisis, recovery, and resilience: Did the Middle Ages end? In March 1560, the "Amboise conspiracy", or "Tumult of Amboise", was an attempt on the part of a group of disaffected nobles to abduct the young king Francis II and eliminate the Catholic House of Guise. Issues of religious reform exacerbated conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility, as in the French wars of religion. wars of the 16th century) 2. After her army's defeat at the Battle of Langside on May 13, she fled to England, where she was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth. Uploaded by. The south, under Spanish rule, remained a Catholic stronghold; most of its Protestants fled to the north. In recent years religion has resurfaced amongst academics, in many ways replacing class as the key to understanding Europe's historical development. France. This was a step which the princes who supported Luther were in no way willing to countenance. Even so, by 1570 the Spanish had mostly suppressed the rebellion throughout the Netherlands. Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis, 1559 1. Although peace agreements were reached, the conflict restarted in 1572 following the Bartholomew's Day Massacre. At the 2nd Battle of Kappel, Zwingli's supporters were defeated, and Zwingli was killed. The moratorium kept peace in the German lands for over a decade. Europe was plagued by wars of religion. [citation needed] This played a major part in the rejection of his teachings by many German peasants, particularly in the south. The course will focus on cultural and social aspects of religious and civil conflict during the German Peasants’ Revolt, Dutch Revolt, French Wars of Religion, Thirty Years’ War, and British Germany, France, and the Netherlands each achieved a settlement of the religious problem by means of war, and in each case the solution contained original aspects. European Wars of Religion DRAFT. [7] The following year Fitzgerald was blasted into submission, and in August he was induced to surrender. Failure to comply would result in prosecution by the Imperial Court. HELL . The total defeat of the insurgents at Frankenhausen (May 15, 1525), was followed by the execution of Müntzer and thousands of peasant followers. See Also: Absolute Monarchs Powerpoints. S tarting in the 1520s international relations between the rising European states were dominated by conflicts that were primarily or significantly religious in character: wars in central and southern Europe, between Christians and Muslims; and, in central and northwestern Europe, confessional wars, the fruit of the Reformation. Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg is a treaty signed by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, which ended the religious conflict between Catholicism and Lutheranism. The treaty was between Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes. The Reformation & European Wars of Religion. King Henri decided to strike first. In 1645 Parliament passed the Self-denying Ordinance, by which all members of either House of Parliament laid down their commands, allowing the re-organization of its main forces into the New Model Army. The Catholic cantons in response had formed an alliance with Ferdinand of Austria. Watch: AP European History - French Wars of Religion. Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars of the 16th century) 2. A 12-year truce was negotiated in 1609, and when the campaign began again it merged into the general conflict of the Thirty Years’ War, which, like the other wars of religion of this period, was fought mainly for confessional security and political gain. The Low Countries have a particular history of religious conflict which had its roots in the Calvinist reformation movement of the 1530s. The political conflicts thus engendered within the Empire led almost inevitably to war. In general, the early part of the war went well for the Royalists. Wars of Religion: 1559-1648. 1555. In October 1641, a major rebellion broke out in Ireland. Matthys identified Münster as the "New Jerusalem", and preparations were made, not only to hold what had been gained, but to proceed from Münster toward the conquest of the world. Purely political motivations, and cross-religious alliances were also significant in many of the earlier wars. The Parlement of Paris instituted criminal charges against the King, who now joined forces with his cousin, Henry of Navarre, to war against the League. Trouver des images haute résolution de qualité dans la banque d'images Getty Images. This is a list of conflicts in Europe ordered chronologically, including wars between European states, civil wars within European states, wars between a European state and a non-European state that took place within Europe, and global conflicts in which Europe was a theatre of war.. Her son James VI was raised as a Protestant, later becoming King of England as well as Scotland. Although a Roman Catholic, she was prepared to deal favourably with the Huguenot House of Bourbon. Added to this was the newer, Calvinist, teaching that the leading citizens had the duty to overthrow an "ungodly" ruler (i.e. Community of goods was also established. The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the 1526 Diet of Speyer and ended the violence between the Lutherans and the Catholics in Germany. However this was a decade in which Protestantism was able to entrench its position in the lands that it already occupied. The Holy Roman Empire, encompassing present-day Germany and portions of neighbouring lands, was the single area most devastated by the Wars of Religion. See also: The Renaissance, powerpoints, the … The situation degenerated into the Eighth War (1585–1589). Get this from a library! Charles was executed in 1649, and the monarchy was not restored until 1660. History. Due to the almost uninterrupted rule of the Calvinist-dominated separatists, most of the population of the northern provinces became converted to Protestantism over the next decades. Iconoclasm: The organised destruction of Catholic images swept through Netherlands churches in 1566. A SmartBoard Notebook file that contains a simple question sequence assignment on the French and European Wars of Religion. AP European History: Unit 2.2 HistorySage.com Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 I. Hapsburg -Valois Wars (c. 1519 -1559) A. Charles soon needed to raise more money to suppress this Irish Rebellion. Read European Wars Of Religion books like The Children of the New Forest and Auldearn 1645 with a free trial However, with Protestant reinforcements arriving from neighbouring counties, the queen regent retreated to Dunbar. Mary of Guise gathered those nobles loyal to her and a small French army. While the wars of religion often began as conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, there were political, economic, civil, and national reasons behind the wars as well. Most of the important cities in the provinces of Holland and Zeeland immediately declared loyalty to the rebels. The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment (see Huguenots).Of equal importance, however, was the struggle for power between the crown and the great nobles and the rivalry among the great nobles themselves for the control of the king. The Reformation in Scotland began in conflict. Habsburg rulers confronted an expanded Ottoman Empire while attempting unsuccessfully to restore Catholic unity across Europe. Shortly after this episode, local resistance to the reforms emerged in England. In September of that year, war again broke out (the Third War). This time, on 24 October 1559, the Scottish nobility formally deposed Mary of Guise from the regency. I. Hapsburg-Valois Wars (c. 1519-1559) A. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. States exploited religious conflicts to promote political and economic interests. This has resulted in an explosion of studies revisiting issues of religious change, confessional violence and holy war during the early modern period. In response, William united the northern states of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and the province of Groningen in the Union of Utrecht on January 23, 1579. The staggering royal debt and Charles IX's desire to seek a peaceful solution[6] led to the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (8 August 1570), which once more allowed some concessions to the Huguenots. England, Scotland and Ireland, in personal union under the Stuart king, James I & VI, continued Elizabeth I's policy of providing military support to European Protestants in the Netherlands and France. The sack of the city of Antwerp by mutinous Spanish soldiery in 1576 (three years after the dismissal of Philip II’s autocratic and capable governor, the duke de Alba) completed the commercial decline of Spain’s greatest economic asset. This has resulted in an explosion of studies revisiting issues of religious change, confessional violence and holy war during the early modern period. How does a soul get purified? – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 7b71b5-MjU2Z HEAVEN. The King knew that he had to take Paris if he stood any chance of ruling all of France. TSTC Publishing. Europe’s Wars of Religion were fought against entire populations, and were punctuated by events remembered as atrocities: such as the siege of Leiden in 1573-4 or, most notoriously, the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacres in France in 1572. Including: land, money and economics, political power, natural resources, and more included the Hussite rebellion, and missionaries and conquistadors versus Native Americans Catherine and Charles decided this time to ally themselves with the House of Guise. Ireland had known continuous war since the rebellion of 1641, with most of the island controlled by the Irish Confederates. The Renaissance had brought rapid economic and population growth which stressed traditional societal structures. The fortified harbour of La Rochelle in western France, became a Protestant stronghold that was fought over in two lengthy sieges. A vast number of minor independent duchies, free imperial cities, abbeys, bishoprics, and small lordships of sovereign families rounded out the Empire. The Wars of Religion (1562-1598) The Reformation. Discover the best European Wars Of Religion books and audiobooks. Learn from European Wars Of Religion experts like Frederick Marryat and Stuart Reid. Claiming to be the successor of David, John of Leiden was installed as king, legalized polygamy, and himself took sixteen wives, one of whom he beheaded himself in the marketplace. Period: 1555. to . The sack of Magdeburg in 1631. Tradition and Change. However, on April 1, 1572, Dutch Calvinist raiders, known as Sea Beggars, forced from sanctuary in England, unexpectedly captured the almost undefended northern Netherlands town of Brielle. Political, economic, and social background, The emergence of modern Europe, 1500–1648, Political and cultural influences on the economy, Revolution and the growth of industrial society, 1789–1914, General character of the Romantic movement, Early 19th-century social and political thought, The rise of organized labour and mass protests.