puter-assisted diagnosis of focal cortical dys-plasia can be a valuable technique [5–10]. Authors: Val M. Runge, MD. Focal cortical dysplasia is a congenital abnormality where the neurons fail to migrate in the proper formation in utero. M. Thom, in Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences (Second Edition), 2014. Findings in the current patient is in conformity with focal cortical dysplasia of the right frontal lobe. Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults. (B) Thionin‐stained large pyramidal neurone in CD. Epub 2018 May 21. What is Focal Cortical Dysplasia? MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors reviewed the MR images of 14 patients with FCD, which was confirmed with histologic examination. The histological features were reviewed and correlated with the MRI findings. Objective: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common pathology in focal drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). Once identified, bottom-of-sulcus dys-plasia is a readily recognizable archetype of focal cortical dysplasia that has specific im-aging features. Histology Microscopic description: Sections show multiple fragments of cortical tissue with underlying white matter. All lesions were localized to part of one hemisphere. Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is regarded as a developmental abnormality and it has a strong association with difficulty in treating epilepsy in both children and adults. Likely focal cortical dysplasia (Blumcke type I), although a low grade DNET remains in the differential list. In this case, the association between cerebral venous thrombosis and focal cortical dysplasia is most likely fortuitous. Focal cortical dysplasia is categorized further into the subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, and 3c. Normal MR spectroscopy, and diffusion MRI findings are expected in focal cortical dysplasia, that would contribute to exclusion of a focal or an infiltrating cortical tumor in equivocal conditions. One case was also examined using single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS). The aim of this study was to identify the MR features of histologic subtypes of FCD that would be useful for differential diagnosis. The pathologic features of re-sected specimens are identical to those of any focal cortical dysplasia. Focal cortical dysplasia is a common cause of intractable epilepsy in children and is a frequent cause of epilepsy in adults. Knowledge of focal cortical dysplasia magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics is of utmost importance for diagnosis. Absence of a MRI‐visible lesion necessitates additional diagnostic tests and is a predictor of poor surgical outcome. Measuring Cortical Thickness in Brain MRI Volumes to Detect Focal Cortical Dysplasia L. Platisa1, A. 1 Typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of FCD type II include cortical thickening, blurring of gray‐white matter junction, hyperintense signal on T2 or fluid‐attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences, and the … Epilepsy Behav. Main causes reported for focal cortical dysplasia are intrauterine infection, ischemia and chromosomal mutation like genetic disorder. In this case, the association between cerebral venous thrombosis and focal cortical dysplasia is most likely fortuitous. Focal cortical dysplasia is a disorder of cortical formation, which may demonstrate both architectural and proliferative features, and a frequent cause of epilepsy. It can be identified on conventional magnetic resonance imaging as focal cortical thickening, abnormal gyration, and blurring between gray and white matter, often associated with clusters of heterotopic neurons. Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a condition that often interferes with the cranial mass. Focal means that it is limited to a focal zone in any lobe. The patient went on to have a craniotomy and resection. MRI findings may be very subtle or may even be negative, therefore a high index of suspicion is mandatory! Signal abnormality in the left temporal lobe without associated positive or negative mass effect. There are three types of FCD: Type I − is hard to see on a brain scan. Cortical dysplasias are malformations of brain development that are highly epileptogenic. There are currently three main types recognized, based on their histological appearances. 1. Recurrent attacks of seizures not … Diagnosis probable Diagnosis probable . Focal cortical dysplasia is one of the most common underlying pathologies in patients who undergo surgery for refractory epilepsy. (A) Thionin‐stained clusters of rounded cells with large nuclei and a thin rim of cytoplasm interpreted as immature neurones.Observed in AD.