The message of Poland had rippled across all of eastern Europe. From 1978, Pope John Paul II convoked 15 assemblies of the Synod of Bishops: 6 ordinary general sessions (1980, 1983, 1987, 1990, 1994 and 2001), 1 extraordinary general session (1985) and 8 special sessions (1980, 1991,1994,1995,1997,1998 (2) and 1999). Jon Voight's powerful, Emmy-nominated performance as John Paul II was widely praised, as was Cary Elwes as the young Karol. He spent two and a half months hospitalized, but he fully recovered from his wounds; two days after Christmas in 1983, he went to the prison and met with his would-be assassin. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Ecclesiastical and theological contributions, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-John-Paul-II, The Telegraph - Obituary of Pope John Paul II, Jewish Virtual Library - Biography of John Paul II, Saint John Paul II - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Saint John Paul II - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). More than 3 million people waited in line to say good-bye to their beloved religious leader at St. Peter's Basilica before his funeral on April 8. American businessman J. Paul Getty built his fortune as president of the Getty Oil Company. In 1958 Pope Pius XII appointed him an auxiliary bishop of Kraków. During these years Wojtyła began to write nationalistic plays, and he joined the Rhapsodic Theatre, an underground resistance group that aimed to sustain Polish culture and morale through covert readings of poetry and drama. JPII Experience Events are opportunities where you can come see what life is like at our school. We strive for accuracy and fairness. Wojtyła’s father, Karol senior, was a lieutenant in the Polish army. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. At the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) Wojtyła so distinguished himself that halfway through the council, in December 1963, Pope Paul VI named him archbishop of Kraków. Back in Kraków, Wojtyła continued his studies in clandestine classes. He also issued several unprecedented apologies to groups that historically had been wronged by Catholics, most notably Jews and Muslims. Pope John Paul II Faith Courage Fear Marriage is an act of will that signifies and involves a mutual gift, which unites the spouses and binds them to their eventual souls, with whom they make up a sole family - a domestic church. He was a vocal advocate for human rights and used his influence to effect political change. His studies ended abruptly when Nazi Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. In 1981 Pope John Paul II suffered severe wounds when he was shot as he entered St. Peter's Square to address a general audience. The crowd soon broke out … Editor’s note: The month marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of Pope John Paul II, born Karol Józef Wojtyła on May 18, 1920, in the Polish town of … In that way, all … Kaiser Wilhelm served as emperor of Germany from 1888 until the end of World War I. Mobster John "Junior" Gotti allegedly served as a capo in the Gambino family and was the acting boss when his father, John Gotti was in prison. Philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr. was the only son of John D. Rockefeller and heir to his fortune. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Timeline: Pope John Paul II The following is a list of key dates in the life of Pope John Paul II, born Karol Jozef Wojtyla, 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. He was made a cardinal by Pope Paul VI in 1967, and in 1978 became the first non-Italian pope in more than 400 years. In February 1941 Wojtyła returned from work one day to discover that his father had died alone; he prayed by the body all night. He went to Krakow's Jagiellonian University in 1938 where he showed an interest in theater and poetry. Wojtyła was an outgoing youth, though always with a serious side. His unabashed Polish nationalism and his emphasis on nonviolent political activism aided the Solidarity movement in communist Poland in the 1980s and ultimately contributed to the peaceful dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. He also became the spiritual leader and mentor of a circle of young adult friends whom he joined on kayaking and camping trips. Church leaders were impressed by Wojtyła’s ability to operate a dynamic pastorate despite communist restrictions. Wojtyła and his father fled with thousands to the east but soon returned after learning that the Russians had also invaded Poland. Born Karol Józef Wojtyla on May 18, 1920, in Wadowice, Poland, Pope John Paul II's early life was marked by great loss. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. I put it in the ground early this summer and, despite fierce attacks from Japaneese Beetles the rose has grown to about 4 times it's original size. He failed to reverse an overall decline in the numbers of priests and nuns, and his traditional interpretations of church teachings on personal and sexual morality alienated some segments of the laity. Omissions? Pope John Paul II died on April 2, 2005, at the age of 84, at his Vatican City residence. Karol J. Wojtyla, known as John Paul II since his October 1978 election to the papacy, was born in Wadowice, a small city 50 kilometres from Cracow, on May 18, 1920. Nicholas II was the last tsar of Russia under Romanov rule. The school was closed the next year by Nazi troops during the German occupation of Poland. 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